The importance of the commensal microbiota to human health and well-being has become increasingly evident over the past decades. From a therapeutic perspective, the popularity of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to restore a disrupted microbiota and amend imbalances has increased. To date, most clinical experience with FMT originates from the treatment of recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDI), with resolution rates up to 90%. In addition to CDI, a role for the intestinal microbiome has been implicated in several disorders. FMT has been tested in several randomized controlled trials for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel disease and constipation with mixed results. FMT has also been explored for extra-gastrointestinal disorders such as metabolic syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy and graft-versus-host disease. With the exception of recurrent CDI, FMT is currently used in experimental settings only and should not yet be offered as standard care. In addition, it is critical to further standardize and optimize procedures for FMT preparation. This includes determination of active components of FMT to develop (personalized) approaches to treat disease.