Purpose: The purpose was to report our initial experience with online markerless 3-dimensional (3D) spine position monitoring. We used template matching plus triangulation of fluoroscopic kilovoltage images acquired with the gantry-mounted imager during flattening filter-free volumetric modulated arc spine stereotactic body radiation therapy delivery on a conventional linear accelerator. Methods and Materials: Kilovoltage images were acquired at 7 frames per second and streamed to a stand-alone computer. Two-dimensional templates (1/°) containing the clinical target volume were generated from planning computed tomography (CT) data before the first fraction and matched to the (prefiltered) kilovoltage images during treatment. Each 2-dimensional registration was triangulated with multiple previous registrations, resulting in the 3D spine position offset from the planned position in real time during treatment. If the offset was more than a certain threshold, the treatment was manually stopped and a cone beam CT scan was acquired to reposition the patient. Results: During irradiation of 10 fractions in 3 patients, images were analyzed at an average rate of 1.0 to 1.3 frames per second; all other frames were excluded from the analysis because of limitations in processing speed. As a result of the start-up period of triangulation and poorer image quality at the start of treatment (lateral imaging angles), the first 3D position was determined after an average of 4.9 seconds. On the basis of the position results, we interrupted the treatment beam 2 times for different patients. In all cases the spine position results corresponded well with the CT–cone beam CT match values used for subsequent repositioning. Conclusions: For the first time, we have determined the spine position during stereotactic body radiation therapy delivery on a standard linear accelerator using the gantry-mounted kilovoltage imager. This has the potential to increase confidence in the treatment, and the need for 2 treatment interruptions demonstrates the benefit of monitoring during irradiation. However, software improvements are needed to increase processing speed.
|Journal||International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 2018|