Kidney-sparing surgery of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) requires a stringent follow-up with frequent ureteroscopies. Triage testing could reduce the number of follow-up ureteroscopies and hence minimize the invasiveness of follow-up. The use of urine-based markers for triage seems appealing but should be feasible with selective urine from outpatient cystoscopy to maximize the reduction of invasiveness. In this study, the feasibility of UroVysion® fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the detection of UTUC in 1 mL of selective urine is investigated. Ten consecutive patients with biopsy-proven UTUC and five patients with negative diagnostic ureteroscopy findings were included in this case-control study. During ureteroscopy, 1 mL of selective urine was collected passively with a ureteral splint for Urovysion® FISH. The FISH rater was blinded to any clinical information. The results of FISH were compared to the findings of concomitantly collected selective urine cytology and the patients’ UTUC status. FISH was feasible in all samples with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 80% for UTUC. In comparison, selective cytology resulted in a diagnostic yield of 87% with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 67%. In conclusion, UTUC detection is feasible with FISH in 1 mL of passively collected selective urine. Thus from a technical point of view, FISH could be used as an outpatient triage test to decide if follow-up ureteroscopy is necessary after kidney-sparing surgery of UTUC. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of FISH for the suggested pathway deserves further attention.
Freund, J. E., Liem, E. I. M. L., Savci-Heijink, C. D., & de Reijke, T. M. (2019). Fluorescence in situ hybridization in 1 mL of selective urine for the detection of upper tract urothelial carcinoma: a feasibility study. Medical Oncology, 36(1), . https://doi.org/10.1007/s12032-018-1237-x