Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography after concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced head-and-neck squamous cell cancer: The ECLYPS study

Tim Van Den Wyngaert*, Nils Helsen, Laurens Carp, Sara Hakim, Michel J. Martens, Isabel Hutsebaut, Philip R. Debruyne, Annelies L.M. Maes, Joost Van Dinther, Carl G. Van Laer, Otto S. Hoekstra, Remco De Bree, Sabine A.E. Meersschout, Olivier Lenssen, Jan B. Vermorken, Danielle Van Den Weyngaert, Sigrid Stroobants, ECLYPS investigators

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Purpose To assess the standardized implementation and reporting of surveillance [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scan of the neck in locoregionally advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSCC) after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Patients and Methods We performed a prospective multicenter study of FDG-PET/CT scanning 12 weeks after CCRT in newly diagnosed patients with LAHNSCC (stage IVa/b) that used standardized reconstruction and Hopkins reporting criteria. The reference standard was histology or . 12 months of clinical follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the negative predictive value (NPV) of FDG-PET/CT scans and other supporting diagnostic test characteristics, including time dependency with increasing followup time. Results Of 152 patients, 125 had adequate primary tumor control after CCRT and entered follow-up (median, 20.4 months). Twenty-three (18.4%) had residual neck disease. Overall, NPV was 92.1% (95% CI, 86.9% to 95.3%; null hypothesis: NPV = 85%; P = .012) with sensitivity of 65.2% (95% CI, 44.9% to 81.2%), specificity of 91.2% (95% CI, 84.1% to 95.3%), positive predictive value of 62.5% (95% CI, 45.5% to 76.9%), and accuracy of 86.4% (95% CI, 79.3% to 91.3%). Sensitivity was time dependent and high for residual disease manifesting up to 9 months after imaging but lower (59.7%) for disease detected up to 12 months after imaging. Standardized reporting criteria reduced the number of equivocal reports (95% CI for the difference, 2.6% to 15.0%; P = .003). Test characteristics were not improved with the addition of lymph node CT morphology criteria. Conclusion FDG-PET/CT surveillance using Hopkins criteria 12 weeks after CCRT is reliable in LAHNSCC except for late manifesting residual disease, which may require an additional surveillance scan at 1 year after CCRT to be detected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3458-3464
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number30
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2017

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