From statistics to clinics: the visual feedback of PROMIS® CATs

Maud M. van Muilekom, Michiel A.J. Luijten, Hedy A. van Oers, Caroline B. Terwee, Raphaële R.L. van Litsenburg, Leo D. Roorda, Martha A. Grootenhuis, Lotte Haverman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: To reduce the burden of completing Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs), PROMIS® Computerized Adaptive Tests (CATs) are being implemented in pediatric clinical practice. We aimed to develop recommendations for visual feedback options for PROMIS CATs on individual item and domain score level as an evidence-based feedback recommendation for PROMIS CATs is lacking. Methods: Focus groups were held with clinicians who use the KLIK PROM portal. Literature-based feedback options were provided to initiate group discussion. Data was analyzed using thematic coding method. Additionally, a questionnaire was sent out to assess patients’ (12-18y) and parents’ (child 0-18y) preference for individual item feedback. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Six focus groups were held (N = 28 clinicians). Regarding individual item feedback, showing the complete item bank, with only responses to administered items in traffic light colors was preferred. For domain scores, line graphs were preferred, including numerical (T-)scores, reference and cut-off lines, and traffic light colors. Separate graphs per domain, ranked in order of importance and harmonization of directionality (‘higher = better’) were considered important. Questionnaire results (N = 31 patients/N = 131 parents) showed that viewing their own item responses was preferred above receiving no item feedback by 58.1% of the patients and 77.1% of the parents. Conclusions: Based on the outcomes and after discussion with the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS National Center, recommendations for PROMIS CAT feedback options were developed. PROMIS CATs can now be used in clinical practice to help clinicians monitor patient outcomes, while reducing the burden of completing PROMs for patients significantly.

Original languageEnglish
Article number55
JournalJournal of Patient-Reported Outcomes
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

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