Gastric cancer

Elizabeth C. Smyth*, Magnus Nilsson, Heike I. Grabsch, Nicole CT van Grieken, Florian Lordick

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer death globally. Risk factors for the condition include Helicobacter pylori infection, age, high salt intake, and diets low in fruit and vegetables. Gastric cancer is diagnosed histologically after endoscopic biopsy and staged using CT, endoscopic ultrasound, PET, and laparoscopy. It is a molecularly and phenotypically highly heterogeneous disease. The main treatment for early gastric cancer is endoscopic resection. Non-early operable gastric cancer is treated with surgery, which should include D2 lymphadenectomy (including lymph node stations in the perigastric mesentery and along the celiac arterial branches). Perioperative or adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with stage 1B or higher cancers. Advanced gastric cancer is treated with sequential lines of chemotherapy, starting with a platinum and fluoropyrimidine doublet in the first line; median survival is less than 1 year. Targeted therapies licensed to treat gastric cancer include trastuzumab (HER2-positive patients first line), ramucirumab (anti-angiogenic second line), and nivolumab or pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1 third line).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)635-648
Number of pages14
JournalThe Lancet
Volume396
Issue number10251
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Aug 2020

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