Aims: To systematically review the literature regarding the association between glucose variability (GV) and mood in adults with diabetes, appraise the used methods and make suggestions for future research. Methods: A systematic review of literature published up to May 2019 was performed. Abstracts and full texts were screened independently in duplicate. Experimental and observational studies reporting the association between GV and mood in adults with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes were evaluated. A descriptive analysis of the extracted data was conducted, along with a quality assessment. Results: Out of the 2.316 studies screened, eight studies met our criteria. Studies used a variety of measures and metrics to determine GV and mood. Four studies used continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). An association between GV and mood was found in four studies when correlating either postprandial glucose rate of increase with current mood or multiday GV with mood measured retrospectively. The other four studies did not find any association. Conclusions: There is no clear empirical support for a link between GV and mood in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. More rigorous research is warranted using CGM and ecological momentary assessment of mood to assess if and under what conditions an association between GV and mood exists.