Glutaric aciduria type 1: Clinical, biochemical and molecular findings in patients from Israel

Stanley H. Korman*, Cornelis Jakobs, Patricia S. Darmin, Alisa Gutman, Marjo S. van der Knaap, Ziva Ben-Neriah, Imad Dweikat, Isaiah D. Wexler, Gajja S. Salomons

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is a rare cerebral organic aciduria which typically manifests as an acute encephalopathic crisis followed by profound long-term neurological handicap. We report the diagnosis of 12 new patients from a single laboratory in Israel during a 5-year period. Eleven of the 12 were of Palestinian origin, and only two were related. One patient was asymptomatic whilst one was mildly, one moderately and nine severely affected, two of whom had unusual MRI findings. Two patients had normal glutaric acid excretion and normal blood glutarylcarnitine levels yet glutarylcarnitine excretion was increased, indicating its utility as a diagnostic marker. Four novel GCDH mutations (Thr193_Arg194insHis, Asn329Ser, Thr341Pro, Met405Val) and five previously reported mutations (Ser119Leu, Leu283Pro, Ala293Thr, Gly390Arg and Thr416Ile) were identified. Severely and mildly affected or even asymptomatic patients shared the same genotypes (Thr416Ile/Thre416Ile and Aal293Thr/Thr193_Arg194insHis). Knowledge of the responsible mutation enabled successful prenatal diagnosis on chorionic villous DNA in three families. In conclusion, GA1 is genetically heterogeneous and has a relatively high incidence in the Palestinian population, reflecting the historical tradition of marriages within extended kindreds, particularly in isolated villages. Additional genetic and/or environmental factors must account for the phenotypic heterogeneity in patients with the same genotype. The diagnosis was not suspected in the majority of cases despite typical clinical and/or neuroimaging features, suggesting that glutaric aciduria may be under-diagnosed. Greater awareness of glutaric aciduria amongst pediatricians, neonatologists and radiologists is the key to identifying the disorder in the presymptomatic phase and preventing its catastrophic consequences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-89
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Paediatric Neurology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2007

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