Growth and Clinical Variables in Nitrogen-Restricted Piglets Fed an Adjusted Essential Amino Acid Mix: Effects of Free Amino Acid-Based Diets

Mikkel Lykke, Per T. Sangild, Johannes B. van Goudoever, Dewi van Harskamp, Henk Schierbeek, Berthold Koletzko, Eline M. van der Beek, Marieke Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Bert J. M. van de Heijning, Barbara Stoll, Douglas G. Burrin, Thomas Thymann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Excess protein intake in early life has been linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Yet protein, and in particular the essential amino acids (EAAs), need to be present in adequate quantity to support growth. Objective: With the use of a piglet model restricted in dietary amino acids (AAs), we compared the efficacy and safety of a standard formula with a low-AA formula containing an adjusted AA composition. Methods: Female piglets (3-7 d old; Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) were fed 1 of 4 isoenergetic AA-based formulas for 14 d (700 kJ · kg body weight-1 · d-1). The formulas contained a set control amount (44 g/L) and AA compositions referred to as the experimental standard (ST-100, n = 22), or 20% or 50% lower total AAs (respectively, ST-80, n = 19 and ST-50, n = 13), or 20% lower total AAs with an optimally adjusted EAA composition (O-80, n = 17). A series of clinical and paraclinical endpoints were measured. Results: Growth rates were similar for ST-100, O-80 and ST-80 piglets (all ∼15 g · kg-1 · d-1), whereas ST-50 had a markedly lower weight gain relative to all groups (all P < 0.05). Relative to ST-100, all groups with reduced AA intake showed ∼16% reduction in plasma albumin and ∼30% reduction in plasma urea (both P < 0.05). The absolute leucine oxidation rate was ∼30% lower for O-80 than for ST-100 piglets (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These data show that a 20% reduction in total AA intake for both the control (ST-80) and the adjusted AA (O-80) formula did not have any short-term adverse effects on growth in artificially reared, AA-restricted piglets. The lower absolute leucine oxidation rate observed in O-80 supports the development of an infant formula with an improved AA composition and a moderate reduction in total protein to support adequate growth in healthy infants.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1109-1117
JournalThe Journal of nutrition
Volume148
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Cite this

Lykke, Mikkel ; Sangild, Per T. ; van Goudoever, Johannes B. ; van Harskamp, Dewi ; Schierbeek, Henk ; Koletzko, Berthold ; van der Beek, Eline M. ; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke ; van de Heijning, Bert J. M. ; Stoll, Barbara ; Burrin, Douglas G. ; Thymann, Thomas. / Growth and Clinical Variables in Nitrogen-Restricted Piglets Fed an Adjusted Essential Amino Acid Mix: Effects of Free Amino Acid-Based Diets. In: The Journal of nutrition. 2018 ; Vol. 148, No. 7. pp. 1109-1117.
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title = "Growth and Clinical Variables in Nitrogen-Restricted Piglets Fed an Adjusted Essential Amino Acid Mix: Effects of Free Amino Acid-Based Diets",
abstract = "Background: Excess protein intake in early life has been linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Yet protein, and in particular the essential amino acids (EAAs), need to be present in adequate quantity to support growth. Objective: With the use of a piglet model restricted in dietary amino acids (AAs), we compared the efficacy and safety of a standard formula with a low-AA formula containing an adjusted AA composition. Methods: Female piglets (3-7 d old; Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) were fed 1 of 4 isoenergetic AA-based formulas for 14 d (700 kJ · kg body weight-1 · d-1). The formulas contained a set control amount (44 g/L) and AA compositions referred to as the experimental standard (ST-100, n = 22), or 20{\%} or 50{\%} lower total AAs (respectively, ST-80, n = 19 and ST-50, n = 13), or 20{\%} lower total AAs with an optimally adjusted EAA composition (O-80, n = 17). A series of clinical and paraclinical endpoints were measured. Results: Growth rates were similar for ST-100, O-80 and ST-80 piglets (all ∼15 g · kg-1 · d-1), whereas ST-50 had a markedly lower weight gain relative to all groups (all P < 0.05). Relative to ST-100, all groups with reduced AA intake showed ∼16{\%} reduction in plasma albumin and ∼30{\%} reduction in plasma urea (both P < 0.05). The absolute leucine oxidation rate was ∼30{\%} lower for O-80 than for ST-100 piglets (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These data show that a 20{\%} reduction in total AA intake for both the control (ST-80) and the adjusted AA (O-80) formula did not have any short-term adverse effects on growth in artificially reared, AA-restricted piglets. The lower absolute leucine oxidation rate observed in O-80 supports the development of an infant formula with an improved AA composition and a moderate reduction in total protein to support adequate growth in healthy infants.",
author = "Mikkel Lykke and Sangild, {Per T.} and {van Goudoever}, {Johannes B.} and {van Harskamp}, Dewi and Henk Schierbeek and Berthold Koletzko and {van der Beek}, {Eline M.} and Marieke Abrahamse-Berkeveld and {van de Heijning}, {Bert J. M.} and Barbara Stoll and Burrin, {Douglas G.} and Thomas Thymann",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1093/jn/nxy072",
language = "English",
volume = "148",
pages = "1109--1117",
journal = "The Journal of nutrition",
issn = "0022-3166",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "7",

}

Lykke, M, Sangild, PT, van Goudoever, JB, van Harskamp, D, Schierbeek, H, Koletzko, B, van der Beek, EM, Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M, van de Heijning, BJM, Stoll, B, Burrin, DG & Thymann, T 2018, 'Growth and Clinical Variables in Nitrogen-Restricted Piglets Fed an Adjusted Essential Amino Acid Mix: Effects of Free Amino Acid-Based Diets' The Journal of nutrition, vol. 148, no. 7, pp. 1109-1117. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy072

Growth and Clinical Variables in Nitrogen-Restricted Piglets Fed an Adjusted Essential Amino Acid Mix: Effects of Free Amino Acid-Based Diets. / Lykke, Mikkel; Sangild, Per T.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Harskamp, Dewi; Schierbeek, Henk; Koletzko, Berthold; van der Beek, Eline M.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Stoll, Barbara; Burrin, Douglas G.; Thymann, Thomas.

In: The Journal of nutrition, Vol. 148, No. 7, 2018, p. 1109-1117.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Growth and Clinical Variables in Nitrogen-Restricted Piglets Fed an Adjusted Essential Amino Acid Mix: Effects of Free Amino Acid-Based Diets

AU - Lykke, Mikkel

AU - Sangild, Per T.

AU - van Goudoever, Johannes B.

AU - van Harskamp, Dewi

AU - Schierbeek, Henk

AU - Koletzko, Berthold

AU - van der Beek, Eline M.

AU - Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke

AU - van de Heijning, Bert J. M.

AU - Stoll, Barbara

AU - Burrin, Douglas G.

AU - Thymann, Thomas

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Background: Excess protein intake in early life has been linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Yet protein, and in particular the essential amino acids (EAAs), need to be present in adequate quantity to support growth. Objective: With the use of a piglet model restricted in dietary amino acids (AAs), we compared the efficacy and safety of a standard formula with a low-AA formula containing an adjusted AA composition. Methods: Female piglets (3-7 d old; Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) were fed 1 of 4 isoenergetic AA-based formulas for 14 d (700 kJ · kg body weight-1 · d-1). The formulas contained a set control amount (44 g/L) and AA compositions referred to as the experimental standard (ST-100, n = 22), or 20% or 50% lower total AAs (respectively, ST-80, n = 19 and ST-50, n = 13), or 20% lower total AAs with an optimally adjusted EAA composition (O-80, n = 17). A series of clinical and paraclinical endpoints were measured. Results: Growth rates were similar for ST-100, O-80 and ST-80 piglets (all ∼15 g · kg-1 · d-1), whereas ST-50 had a markedly lower weight gain relative to all groups (all P < 0.05). Relative to ST-100, all groups with reduced AA intake showed ∼16% reduction in plasma albumin and ∼30% reduction in plasma urea (both P < 0.05). The absolute leucine oxidation rate was ∼30% lower for O-80 than for ST-100 piglets (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These data show that a 20% reduction in total AA intake for both the control (ST-80) and the adjusted AA (O-80) formula did not have any short-term adverse effects on growth in artificially reared, AA-restricted piglets. The lower absolute leucine oxidation rate observed in O-80 supports the development of an infant formula with an improved AA composition and a moderate reduction in total protein to support adequate growth in healthy infants.

AB - Background: Excess protein intake in early life has been linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Yet protein, and in particular the essential amino acids (EAAs), need to be present in adequate quantity to support growth. Objective: With the use of a piglet model restricted in dietary amino acids (AAs), we compared the efficacy and safety of a standard formula with a low-AA formula containing an adjusted AA composition. Methods: Female piglets (3-7 d old; Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) were fed 1 of 4 isoenergetic AA-based formulas for 14 d (700 kJ · kg body weight-1 · d-1). The formulas contained a set control amount (44 g/L) and AA compositions referred to as the experimental standard (ST-100, n = 22), or 20% or 50% lower total AAs (respectively, ST-80, n = 19 and ST-50, n = 13), or 20% lower total AAs with an optimally adjusted EAA composition (O-80, n = 17). A series of clinical and paraclinical endpoints were measured. Results: Growth rates were similar for ST-100, O-80 and ST-80 piglets (all ∼15 g · kg-1 · d-1), whereas ST-50 had a markedly lower weight gain relative to all groups (all P < 0.05). Relative to ST-100, all groups with reduced AA intake showed ∼16% reduction in plasma albumin and ∼30% reduction in plasma urea (both P < 0.05). The absolute leucine oxidation rate was ∼30% lower for O-80 than for ST-100 piglets (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These data show that a 20% reduction in total AA intake for both the control (ST-80) and the adjusted AA (O-80) formula did not have any short-term adverse effects on growth in artificially reared, AA-restricted piglets. The lower absolute leucine oxidation rate observed in O-80 supports the development of an infant formula with an improved AA composition and a moderate reduction in total protein to support adequate growth in healthy infants.

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UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29901732

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JO - The Journal of nutrition

JF - The Journal of nutrition

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