Guideline for Reporting Interventions on Spinal Manipulative Therapy: Consensus on Interventions Reporting Criteria List for Spinal Manipulative Therapy (CIRCLe SMT)

Ruud Groeneweg*, Sidney M. Rubinstein, Rob A.B. Oostendorp, Raymond W.J.G. Ostelo, Maurits W. van Tulder

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective The aim of the Consensus on Interventions Reporting Criteria List for Spinal Manipulative Therapy (CIRCLe SMT) study was to develop a criteria list for reporting spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). Methods A Delphi procedure was conducted from September 2011 to April 2013 and consisted of international experts in the field of SMT. The authors formed a steering committee and invited participants, selected initial items, structured the comments of the participants after each Delphi round, and formulated the feedback. To ensure content validity, a large number of international experts from different SMT-related disciplines were invited to participate. A workshop was organized following the consensus phase, and it was used to discuss and refine the wording of the items. Results In total, 123 experts from 18 countries participated. These experts included clinicians (70%), researchers (93%), and academics working in the area of SMT (27%), as well as journal editors (14%). (Note: The total is more than 100% because most participants reported 2 jobs.) Three Delphi rounds were necessary to reach a consensus. The criteria list comprised 24 items under 5 domains, including (1) rationale of the therapy, (2) description of the intervention, (3) SMT techniques, (4) additional intervention/techniques, and (5) quantitative data. Conclusions A valid criteria list was constructed with the aim of promoting consistency in reporting SMT intervention in scientific publications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-70
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2017

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