Introduction: The use of the new psychoactive substance 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) and the number of 4-FA-related intoxications substantially increased in The Netherlands in recent years. We describe two patients with severe 4-FA-related complications and the characteristics of a large sample of 4-FA-intoxicated patients. Methods: Information on patients with 4-FA-related intoxications between January 2009 and June 2017 was available from the Monitor Drug-related Incidents. Detailed clinical information was obtained of two patients with haemorrhagic stroke after toxicologically confirmed 4-FA use. Results: We report on two patients who presented with headache and mild hypertension after 4-FA use. Patient A developed one-sided weakness and decreased consciousness after a few hours. A computed tomography scan showed a left-sided intracerebral haemorrhage. Because of life-threatening cerebral herniation, haematoma evacuation was performed. Postoperatively, she suffered from a right-sided hemiparalysis and severe aphasia, requiring clinical rehabilitation. Patient B had a subarachnoid haemorrhage without neurological deficits. In total, 939 4-FA-intoxicated patients were registered. These patients used 4-FA alone (44%) or in combination with alcohol (13%) and/or other drugs (43%). Discussion: Patients using 4-FA are at risk for life-threatening health problems, including intracranial haemorrhage. Additional brain imaging should be considered in 4-FA-intoxicated patients, not only in the presence of neurological deficits, but also in the case of severe headache.
Wijers, C. H. W., Visser, M. C., van Litsenburg, R. T. H., Niesink, R. J. M., Willemse, R. B., & Croes, E. A. (2018). Haemorrhagic stroke related to the use of 4-fluoroamphetamine. Journal of Neurology, 265(7), 1607-1611. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-8888-6