The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a set of goals that aspire to 'leave no one behind', adopted by all members of the United Nations and to be achieved by 2030. Now, four years after the SDGs entered into force, we examine the progress towards the health-related SDGs in the European region. In this region, least progress is made towards the targets set for alcohol consumption, smoking prevalence, child overweight, and suicide mortality. For each of these challenges we take stock of current policies, continuing challenges, and ways forward. Written from the perspective of European Public Health Association (EUPHA) we emphasize the potential contribution of civil society organizations in attaining the health-related SDGs.