Background: In clinical practice, oxygen is generally administered to patients with the intention of increasing oxygen delivery. Supplemental oxygen may, however, cause arterial hyperoxia, which is associated with hemodynamic alterations. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to determine the effect of hyperoxia on central hemodynamics and oxygen delivery in healthy volunteers and cardiovascular-compromised patients. Methods: PubMed and EMBASE were searched up to March 2017. Studies with adult humans investigating changes in central hemodynamics or oxygen delivery induced by acute normobaric hyperoxia were included. Studies focusing on lung, retinal, or brain parameters were not included. We extracted subject and oxygen exposure characteristics, indexed and unindexed values for heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure (MAP), systemic vascular resistance, and oxygen delivery during normoxia and hyperoxia. For quantitative synthesis of the data, a random-effects ratio of means (RoM) model was used. Results: We identified 33 studies with 42 datasets. Study categories included healthy volunteers (n = 22 datasets), patients with coronary artery disease (CAD; n = 6), heart failure (HF; n = 6), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG; n = 3) and sepsis (n = 5). Hyperoxia (arterial oxygen tension of 234-617 mmHg) reduced cardiac output (CO) by 10-15% in both healthy volunteers (-10.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -12.9% to -7.3%) and CAD (-9.6%, 95% CI -12.3% to -6.9%) or HF patients (-15.2%, 95% CI -21.7% to -8.2%). No significant changes in cardiac output were seen in CABG or septic patients (-3%). Systemic vascular resistance increased remarkably in patients with heart failure (24.6%, 95% CI 19.3% to 30.1%). In healthy volunteers, and those with CAD and CABG, the effect was smaller (11-16%) and was virtually absent in patients with sepsis (4.3%, 95% CI -3.2% to 12.3%). No notable effect on MAP was found in any group (2-3%). Oxygen delivery was not altered by hyperoxia. Considerable heterogeneity existed between study results, likely due to methodological differences. Conclusions: Hyperoxia may considerably decrease cardiac output and increase systemic vascular resistance, but effects differ between patient categories. Heart failure patients were the most sensitive while no hemodynamic effects were seen in septic patients. There is currently no evidence supporting the notion that oxygen supplementation increases oxygen delivery.