Objective.: Addition of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing to post-treatment monitoring policies of women treated for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) may improve the effectiveness of detecting recurrent/residual disease. Recent studies have shown that HPV type 16 confers an increased risk of high-grade CIN and cervical cancer. This study aimed to find out whether the post-treatment CIN3 rate is increased in HPV16-positive women treated for CIN3. Methods.: We included 229 hrHPV-positive women treated for CIN3. HPV typing was performed by GP5+/6+-PCR followed by reverse line blotting on a cervical scrape taken before treatment. HPV typing data were related to the occurrence of post-treatment CIN3 within a median follow-up time of 20.1 months (range 3-85.4 months) following treatment. Results.: Twenty nine of the 151 (19%) HPV16-positive women versus 6 of the 78 (8%) women with other hrHPV types had recurrent/residual CIN3. Post-treatment CIN3 rate was significantly increased in women with HPV16 compared to those harboring other hrHPV types (p = 0.03). None of the other hrHPV types were associated with higher post-treatment CIN3 rates. Conclusion.: Women treated for HPV16 containing CIN3 should be monitored more intensively because of their increased risk of post-treatment CIN3. Thus, the HPV genotype should be considered in post-treatment monitoring policies.