Large-volume bone defects can result from congenital malformation, trauma, infection, inflammation and cancer. At present, it remains challenging to treat these bone defects with clinically available interventions. Allografts, xenografts and most synthetic materials have no intrinsic osteoinductivity, and so an alternative approach is to functionalize the biomaterial with osteoinductive agents, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). Because it has been previously demonstrated that human salivary histatin-1 (Hst1) promotes endothelial cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis, we examine here whether Hst1 can promote BMP2-induced bone regeneration. Rats were given subcutaneous implants of absorbable collagen sponge membranes seeded with 0, 50, 200 or 500 μg Hst1 per sample and 0 or 2 μg BMP2 per sample. At 18 days postsurgery, rats were sacrificed, and implanted regional tissue was removed for micro computed tomography (microCT) analyses of new bone (bone volume, trabecular number and trabecular separation). Four samples per group were decalcified and subjected to immunohistochemical staining to analyze osteogenic and angiogenic markers. We observed that Hst1 increased BMP2-induced new bone formation in a dose-dependent manner. Co-administration of 500 μg Hst1 and BMP2 resulted in the highest observed bone volume and trabecular number, the lowest trabecular separation and the highest expression of osteogenic markers and angiogenic markers. Our results suggest that coadministration of Hst1 may enhance BMP2-induced osteogenesis and angiogenesis, and thus may have potential for development into a treatment for large-volume bone defects.