Impacts of Human Papillomavirus Immunization Programs on Rates of Anogenital Warts in British Columbia, Canada, 2000 to 2017

Christine D. Lukac, Robine Donken, Michael Otterstatter, Olga Mazo, Stanley Wong, Fawziah Marra, Laurie Smith, Monika Naus, Deborah Money, Mel Krajden, Troy Grennan, Mark Gilbert, Jason Wong, Gina S. Ogilvie*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background In 2008, British Columbia (BC) implemented a school-based quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV-4) immunization program for girls born in 1994 or later. In 2015, an expanded clinic-based program included men who report sex with men (MSM) born in 1989 or later. To evaluate the impacts of HPV-4 programs on anogenital warts (AGWs), diagnosis rates were measured among women who report sex with men (WSM), men who report sex with women (MSW), and MSM. Methods Diagnoses of AGW were ascertained from 16 sexually transmitted infection clinics. Rates were calculated as new AGW diagnoses over person-years (py) at risk and stratified by age group, calendar period, and birth cohort. Adjusted relative rates (aRR) were estimated using multivariable Poisson regression. Results There were 204,832 clinic visits by 85,158 individuals: 28,366 (33%) WSM, 35,688 (42%) MSW, and 14,534 (17%) MSM. After adjusting for age and period, AGW rates in the 1994-1996 birth cohort decreased by 56% overall (1.21 vs. 2.72 cases/100 py; aRR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.59), 65% among WSM (0.97 vs. 2.77 cases/100 py; aRR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.22-0.57), 58% among MSW (1.60 vs. 3.78 cases/100 py; aRR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.28-0.65), and 41% among MSM (1.14 vs. 1.19 cases/100 py; aRR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.38-0.91) versus the 1991-1993 birth cohort. Conclusions The HPV-4 programs had significant impacts on lowering AGW rates in BC. The greatest decrease was among WSM eligible for the school-based program, followed by birth cohorts of men who likely have sex with HPV-4 eligible women. The smallest decrease among MSM may reflect the later introduction of the clinic-based program.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)691-697
Number of pages7
JournalSexually Transmitted Diseases
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020

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