Background To reduce the burden of low back pain (LBP) in the Netherlands, a multidisciplinary guideline for LBP has been implemented in Dutch primary care using a multifaceted implementation strategy targeted at health care professionals (HCPs) and patients. The current paper describes the process evaluation of the implementation among HCPs. Methods The strategy aimed to improve multidisciplinary collaboration and communication, and consisted of 7 components. This process evaluation was performed using the Linnan and Steckler framework. Data were collected using a mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative data. Results 128 HCPs participated in the implementation study, of which 96 participated in quantitative and 21 participated in qualitative evaluation. Overall dose delivered for this study was 89 %, and the participants were satisfied with the strategy, mostly with the multidisciplinary approach, which contributed to the mutual understanding of each other’s disciplines and perspectives. While the training sessions did not yield any new information, the strategy created awareness of the guideline and its recommendations, contributing to positively changing attitudes and aiding in improving guideline adherent behaviour. However, many barriers to implementation still exist, including personal and practical factors, confidence, dependence and distrust issues among the HCPs, as well as policy factors (e.g. reimbursement systems). Conclusions The data presented in this paper have shown that the strategy that was used to implement the guideline in a Dutch primary care setting was feasible, especially when using a multidisciplinary approach. However, identified barriers for implementation have been identified and should be addressed in future implementation.