In vitro cytotoxicity and surface topography evaluation of additive manufacturing titanium implant materials

J.T. Tuomi, R.V. Björkstrand, M.L. Pernu, M.V.J. Salmi, E.I. Huotilainen, J.E.H. Wolff, P.K. Vallittu, A.A. Mäkitie

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Abstract: Custom-designed patient-specific implants and reconstruction plates are to date commonly manufactured using two different additive manufacturing (AM) technologies: direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and electron beam melting (EBM). The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the surface structure and to assess the cytotoxicity of titanium alloys processed using DMLS and EBM technologies as the existing information on these issues is scarce. “Processed” and “polished” DMLS and EBM disks were assessed. Microscopic examination revealed titanium alloy particles and surface flaws on the processed materials. These surface flaws were subsequently removed by polishing. Surface roughness of EBM processed titanium was higher than that of DMLS processed. The cytotoxicity results of the DMLS and EBM discs were compared with a “gold standard” commercially available titanium mandible reconstruction plate. The mean cell viability for all discs was 82.6% (range, 77.4 to 89.7) and 83.3% for the control reconstruction plate. The DMLS and EBM manufactured titanium plates were non-cytotoxic both in “processed” and in “polished” forms. Graphical Abstract: [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017

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