In vivo Raman spectroscopy for bladder cancer detection using a superficial Raman probe compared to a nonsuperficial Raman probe

Michelle Stomp-Agenant*, Thomas van Dijk, Alexander R. Onur, Matthijs Grimbergen, Harm van Melick, Trudy Jonges, Ruud Bosch, Christiaan van Swol

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Raman spectroscopy is promising as a noninvasive tool for cancer diagnosis. A superficial Raman probe might improve the classification of bladder cancer, because information is gained solely from the diseased tissue and irrelevant information from deeper layers is omitted. We compared Raman measurements of a superficial to a nonsuperficial probe, in bladder cancer diagnosis. Two-hundred sixteen Raman measurements and biopsies were taken in vivo from at least one suspicious and one unsuspicious bladder location in 104 patients. A Raman classification model was constructed based on histopathology, using a principal-component fed linear-discriminant-analysis and leave-one-person-out cross-validation. The diagnostic ability measured in area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.95 and 0.80, the sensitivity was 90% and 85% and the specificity was 87% and 88% for the superficial and the nonsuperficial probe, respectively. We found inflammation to be a confounder and additionally we found a gradual transition from benign to low-grade to high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Raman spectroscopy provides additional information to histopathology and the diagnostic value using a superficial probe.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere202100354
JournalJournal of biophotonics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022

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