Raman spectroscopy is promising as a noninvasive tool for cancer diagnosis. A superficial Raman probe might improve the classification of bladder cancer, because information is gained solely from the diseased tissue and irrelevant information from deeper layers is omitted. We compared Raman measurements of a superficial to a nonsuperficial probe, in bladder cancer diagnosis. Two-hundred sixteen Raman measurements and biopsies were taken in vivo from at least one suspicious and one unsuspicious bladder location in 104 patients. A Raman classification model was constructed based on histopathology, using a principal-component fed linear-discriminant-analysis and leave-one-person-out cross-validation. The diagnostic ability measured in area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.95 and 0.80, the sensitivity was 90% and 85% and the specificity was 87% and 88% for the superficial and the nonsuperficial probe, respectively. We found inflammation to be a confounder and additionally we found a gradual transition from benign to low-grade to high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Raman spectroscopy provides additional information to histopathology and the diagnostic value using a superficial probe.
|Journal||Journal of biophotonics|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jun 2022|