Background Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading infectious cause of morbidity worldwide, particularly among children in developing countries. With the decline of rotavirus disease rates following introduction of rotavirus vaccines, the relative importance of norovirus will likely increase. Our objectives in this study were to determine the incidence and clinical profile of norovirus disease in Guatemala. Methods We analyzed data from a population-based surveillance study conducted in Guatemala from 2008 through 2013. Demographic information, clinical data, and stool samples were collected from patients who presented with AGE (≥3 liquid stools within 24 hours that initiated 7 days before presentation). Estimated incidence of hospitalized, outpatient, and total community norovirus disease was calculated using surveillance data and household surveys of healthcare use. Results We included 999 AGE hospitalizations and 3189 AGE outpatient visits at facilities, of which 164 (16%) and 370 (12%), respectively, were positive for norovirus. Severity of norovirus was milder than of rotavirus. Community incidence of norovirus ranged from 2068 to 4954 per 100000 person-years (py) in children aged<5 years. Children aged <5 years also had higher incidence of norovirus-associated hospitalization (51-105 per 100000 py) compared with patients aged ≥5 years (0-1.6 per 100000 py and 49-80 per 100000 py, respectively). Conclusions This study highlights the burden of norovirus disease in Guatemala, especially among young children. These data can help prioritize development of control strategies, including the potential use of vaccines, and provide a baseline to evaluate the impact of such interventions.
Bierhoff, M., Arvelo, W., Estevez, A., Bryan, J., McCracken, J. P., López, M. R., ... Hall, A. J. (2018). Incidence and clinical profile of norovirus disease in Guatemala, 2008-2013. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 67(3), 430-436. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy091