To assess the incidence of febrile seizures in The Netherlands, we analyzed data from a population-based study carried out in 161 Dutch general practices. The overall incidence rate was 4.8/1,000 person-years. Considerable age and seasonal variation was found. The chance of a child suffering a febrile seizure in the course of the relevant age period (3-72 months) is 2.7%. One out of 3 children was referred to hospital. This is considerably less than in other countries. The incidence rates are similar to those found in the United States, England and Sweden, but differ from Asian studies.