Increased osteogenic potential of pre-osteoblasts on three-dimensional printed scaffolds compared to porous scaffolds for bone regeneration

Yasaman Zamani, Ghassem Amoabediny, Javad Mohammadi*, Behrouz Zandieh-Doulabi, Jenneke Klein-Nulend, Marco N. Helder

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: One of the main challenges with conventional scaffold fabrication methods is the inability to control scaffold architecture. Recently, scaffolds with controlled shape and architecture have been fabricated using 3D-printing. Herein, we aimed to determine whether the much tighter control of microstructure of 3DP PLGA/β-TCP scaffolds is more effective in promoting osteogenesis than porous scaffolds produced by solvent casting/porogen leaching. Methods: Physical and mechanical properties of porous and 3DP scaffolds were studied. The response of pre-osteoblasts to the scaffolds was analyzed after 14 days. Results: The 3DP scaffolds had a smoother surface (Ra: 22 ± 3 µm) relative to the highly rough surface of porous scaffolds (Ra: 110 ± 15 µm). Water contact angle was 112 ± 4° on porous and 76 ± 6° on 3DP scaffolds. Porous and 3DP scaffolds had the pore size of 408 ± 90 and 315 ± 17 µm and porosity of 85 ± 5% and 39 ± 7%, respectively. Compressive strength of 3DP scaffolds (4.0 ± 0.3 MPa) was higher than porous scaffolds (1.7 ± 0.2 MPa). Collagenous matrix deposition was similar on both scaffolds. Cells proliferated from day 1 to day 14 by fourfold in porous and by 3.8-fold in 3DP scaffolds. ALP activity was 21-fold higher in 3DP scaffolds than porous scaffolds. Conclusion: The 3DP scaffolds show enhanced mechanical properties and ALP activity compared to porous scaffolds in vitro, suggesting that 3DP PLGA/β-TCP scaffolds are possibly more favorable for bone formation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78-87
Number of pages10
JournalIranian Biomedical Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021

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