Lynch syndrome (LS) mutation carriers may reduce their cancer risk by adhering to lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention. This study tested the effect of providing LS mutation carriers with World Cancer Research Fund-the Netherlands (WCRF-NL) health promotion materials on awareness and knowledge of and adherence to these recommendations. In this randomized controlled trial (n=226), the intervention group (n=114) received WCRF-NL health promotion materials. All LS mutation carriers were asked to fill out questionnaires at 2 weeks before (baseline, T0) and at 2 weeks (T1) and 6 months (T2) after the intervention. Linear mixed models were performed on awareness (0-7) and knowledge (0-7) of the recommendations, and on the secondary outcomes, that is adherence, distress, cancer worry, and risk perception. Compared with the control group, the intervention group became significantly more aware (overall mean difference=1.24; 95%CI=0.82-1.67) and obtained significantly improved knowledge of the recommendations (overall mean difference=1.65; 95%CI=1.27-2.03). Differences were significantly larger for T1 (Pinteraction=.003 and ≤.001, respectively) but remained significant for T2. No effect on secondary outcomes was found. In conclusion, provision of WCRF-NL health promotion materials increases awareness and knowledge of lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention among LS mutation carriers without causing additional distress, but does not affect adherence.