Inflammation-induced endothelial to mesenchymal transition promotes brain endothelial cell dysfunction and occurs during multiple sclerosis pathophysiology

Claudio Derada Troletti, Ruud D. Fontijn, Elizabeth Gowing, Marc Charabati, Bert van Het Hof, Imad Didouh, Susanne M. A. van der Pol, Dirk Geerts, Alexandre Prat, Jack van Horssen, Gijs Kooij, Helga E. de Vries

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) has a major role in maintaining brain homeostasis through the specialized function of brain endothelial cells (BECs). Inflammation of the BECs and loss of their neuroprotective properties is associated with several neurological disorders, including the chronic neuro-inflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). Yet, the underlying mechanisms of a defective BBB in MS remain largely unknown. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a pathophysiological process in which endothelial cells lose their specialized function and de-differentiate into mesenchymal cells. This transition is characterized by an increase in EndoMT-related transcription factors (TFs), a downregulation of brain endothelial markers, and an upregulation of mesenchymal markers accompanied by morphological changes associated with cytoskeleton reorganization. Here, we postulate that EndoMT drives BEC de-differentiation, mediates inflammation-induced human BECs dysfunction, and may play a role in MS pathophysiology. We provide evidence that stimulation of human BECs with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and interleukin (IL)-1β promotes EndoMT, a process in which the TF SNAI1, a master regulator of EndoMT, plays a crucial role. We demonstrate the involvement of TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in EndoMT induction in BECs. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed EndoMT-associated alterations in the brain vasculature of human post-mortem MS brain tissues. Taken together, our novel findings provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying BECs dysfunction during MS pathology and can be used to develop new potential therapeutic strategies to restore BBB function.
Original languageEnglish
Article number45
JournalCell Death and Disease
Volume10
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Cite this

@article{9608ff266ad14fd78a60c4a9c31c9d96,
title = "Inflammation-induced endothelial to mesenchymal transition promotes brain endothelial cell dysfunction and occurs during multiple sclerosis pathophysiology",
abstract = "The blood-brain barrier (BBB) has a major role in maintaining brain homeostasis through the specialized function of brain endothelial cells (BECs). Inflammation of the BECs and loss of their neuroprotective properties is associated with several neurological disorders, including the chronic neuro-inflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). Yet, the underlying mechanisms of a defective BBB in MS remain largely unknown. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a pathophysiological process in which endothelial cells lose their specialized function and de-differentiate into mesenchymal cells. This transition is characterized by an increase in EndoMT-related transcription factors (TFs), a downregulation of brain endothelial markers, and an upregulation of mesenchymal markers accompanied by morphological changes associated with cytoskeleton reorganization. Here, we postulate that EndoMT drives BEC de-differentiation, mediates inflammation-induced human BECs dysfunction, and may play a role in MS pathophysiology. We provide evidence that stimulation of human BECs with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and interleukin (IL)-1β promotes EndoMT, a process in which the TF SNAI1, a master regulator of EndoMT, plays a crucial role. We demonstrate the involvement of TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in EndoMT induction in BECs. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed EndoMT-associated alterations in the brain vasculature of human post-mortem MS brain tissues. Taken together, our novel findings provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying BECs dysfunction during MS pathology and can be used to develop new potential therapeutic strategies to restore BBB function.",
author = "{Derada Troletti}, Claudio and Fontijn, {Ruud D.} and Elizabeth Gowing and Marc Charabati and {van Het Hof}, Bert and Imad Didouh and {van der Pol}, {Susanne M. A.} and Dirk Geerts and Alexandre Prat and {van Horssen}, Jack and Gijs Kooij and {de Vries}, {Helga E.}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1038/s41419-018-1294-2",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "Cell death & disease",
issn = "2041-4889",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "2",

}

Inflammation-induced endothelial to mesenchymal transition promotes brain endothelial cell dysfunction and occurs during multiple sclerosis pathophysiology. / Derada Troletti, Claudio; Fontijn, Ruud D.; Gowing, Elizabeth; Charabati, Marc; van Het Hof, Bert; Didouh, Imad; van der Pol, Susanne M. A.; Geerts, Dirk; Prat, Alexandre; van Horssen, Jack; Kooij, Gijs; de Vries, Helga E.

In: Cell Death and Disease, Vol. 10, No. 2, 45, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Inflammation-induced endothelial to mesenchymal transition promotes brain endothelial cell dysfunction and occurs during multiple sclerosis pathophysiology

AU - Derada Troletti, Claudio

AU - Fontijn, Ruud D.

AU - Gowing, Elizabeth

AU - Charabati, Marc

AU - van Het Hof, Bert

AU - Didouh, Imad

AU - van der Pol, Susanne M. A.

AU - Geerts, Dirk

AU - Prat, Alexandre

AU - van Horssen, Jack

AU - Kooij, Gijs

AU - de Vries, Helga E.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - The blood-brain barrier (BBB) has a major role in maintaining brain homeostasis through the specialized function of brain endothelial cells (BECs). Inflammation of the BECs and loss of their neuroprotective properties is associated with several neurological disorders, including the chronic neuro-inflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). Yet, the underlying mechanisms of a defective BBB in MS remain largely unknown. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a pathophysiological process in which endothelial cells lose their specialized function and de-differentiate into mesenchymal cells. This transition is characterized by an increase in EndoMT-related transcription factors (TFs), a downregulation of brain endothelial markers, and an upregulation of mesenchymal markers accompanied by morphological changes associated with cytoskeleton reorganization. Here, we postulate that EndoMT drives BEC de-differentiation, mediates inflammation-induced human BECs dysfunction, and may play a role in MS pathophysiology. We provide evidence that stimulation of human BECs with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and interleukin (IL)-1β promotes EndoMT, a process in which the TF SNAI1, a master regulator of EndoMT, plays a crucial role. We demonstrate the involvement of TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in EndoMT induction in BECs. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed EndoMT-associated alterations in the brain vasculature of human post-mortem MS brain tissues. Taken together, our novel findings provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying BECs dysfunction during MS pathology and can be used to develop new potential therapeutic strategies to restore BBB function.

AB - The blood-brain barrier (BBB) has a major role in maintaining brain homeostasis through the specialized function of brain endothelial cells (BECs). Inflammation of the BECs and loss of their neuroprotective properties is associated with several neurological disorders, including the chronic neuro-inflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). Yet, the underlying mechanisms of a defective BBB in MS remain largely unknown. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a pathophysiological process in which endothelial cells lose their specialized function and de-differentiate into mesenchymal cells. This transition is characterized by an increase in EndoMT-related transcription factors (TFs), a downregulation of brain endothelial markers, and an upregulation of mesenchymal markers accompanied by morphological changes associated with cytoskeleton reorganization. Here, we postulate that EndoMT drives BEC de-differentiation, mediates inflammation-induced human BECs dysfunction, and may play a role in MS pathophysiology. We provide evidence that stimulation of human BECs with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and interleukin (IL)-1β promotes EndoMT, a process in which the TF SNAI1, a master regulator of EndoMT, plays a crucial role. We demonstrate the involvement of TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in EndoMT induction in BECs. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed EndoMT-associated alterations in the brain vasculature of human post-mortem MS brain tissues. Taken together, our novel findings provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying BECs dysfunction during MS pathology and can be used to develop new potential therapeutic strategies to restore BBB function.

UR - https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=85061047812&origin=inward

UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30718504

U2 - 10.1038/s41419-018-1294-2

DO - 10.1038/s41419-018-1294-2

M3 - Article

VL - 10

JO - Cell death & disease

JF - Cell death & disease

SN - 2041-4889

IS - 2

M1 - 45

ER -