Influence of Disease and Patient Characteristics on Daratumumab Exposure and Clinical Outcomes in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

Xiaoyu Yan, Pamela L. Clemens, Thomas Puchalski, Sagar Lonial, Henk Lokhorst, Peter M. Voorhees, Saad Usmani, Paul G. Richardson, Torben Plesner, Kevin Liu, Robert Z. Orlowski, Nedjad Losic, Richard Jansson, Tahamtan Ahmadi, Kristen Lantz, Juan Jose Perez Ruixo, Honghui Zhou, Xu Steven Xu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the influence of disease and patient characteristics on exposure to daratumumab, an immunoglobulin Gκ (IgGκ) monoclonal antibody, and clinical outcomes in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Patients and Methods: Baseline myeloma type, albumin levels, renal/hepatic function, age, sex, race, weight, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, refractory status, and number of prior therapies were evaluated using data from two clinical studies—GEN501 (N = 104) and SIRIUS (N = 124). Results: Daratumumab clearance was approximately 110% higher in IgG myeloma patients than non-IgG myeloma patients, leading to significantly lower exposure in IgG myeloma patients based on maximum trough serum concentrations (p < 0.0001). However, the overall response rate was similar for IgG and non-IgG myeloma patients (odds ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 0.54–2.17, p = 0.82). For a given exposure, the drug effect was significantly higher (approximately two times) in IgG versus non-IgG patients (p = 0.03). The influence of other patient and disease characteristics on daratumumab exposure was minimal and no significant effect on efficacy was observed (p ≥ 0.1). The incidences of infections and overall grade 3 or higher adverse events in subpopulations were generally consistent with that of the overall population. Conclusion: Due to competition with the MM-produced IgG M-protein for neonatal Fc receptor protection from clearance, IgG-based monoclonal antibodies in general may have significantly higher clearance and lower concentrations in IgG MM patients compared with non-IgG MM patients. Careful evaluation of the impact of exposure and patient and disease characteristics on safety and efficacy is warranted for all IgG-based monoclonal antibodies used in MM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)529-538
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Pharmacokinetics
Volume57
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2018

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