Background: Survival of childhood cancer in high-income countries is approximately 80%, whereas in low-income countries, it is less than 10%. Limited access to health insurance in low-income settings may contribute to poor survival rates. This study evaluates the influence of health insurance status on childhood cancer treatment in a Kenyan academic hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective study. All children diagnosed with a malignancy from 2010 until 2012 were included. Data on treatment outcomes and health insurance status at diagnosis were abstracted from patient charts. Results: Of 280 patients, 34% abandoned treatment, 19% died, and 18% had progressive or relapsed disease resulting in 29% event-free survival. The majority of patients (65%) did not have health insurance at diagnosis. Treatment results differed significantly between patients with different health insurance status at diagnosis; 37% of uninsured versus 28% of insured patients abandoned treatment, and 24% of uninsured versus 37% of insured patients had event-free survival. The event-free survival estimate was significantly higher for patients with health insurance at diagnosis compared with those without (P = 0.004). Of patients without health insurance at diagnosis, 77% enrolled during treatment. Among those patients who later enrolled in health insurance, frequency of progressive or relapsed disease and deaths was significantly lower (P = 0.013, P < 0.001, respectively), while the event-free survival estimate was significantly higher (P < 0.001) compared with those who never enrolled. Conclusion: Childhood cancer event-free survival was 29% at a Kenyan hospital. Children without health insurance had significant lower chance of event-free survival. Childhood cancer treatment outcomes could be ameliorated by strategies that prevent treatment abandonment and improve access to health insurance.