Infradiaphragmatic irradiation and high procarbazine doses increase colorectal cancer risk in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors

Anna M. Van Eggermond, Michael Schaapveld, Cécile P.M. Janus, Jan Paul De Boer, Augustinus Dg Krol, Joseé M. Zijlstra, Richard W.M. Van Der Maazen, Leontien C. Kremer, Monique E. Van Leerdam, Marieke W.J. Louwman, Otto Visser, Marie L. De Bruin, Berthe M.P. Aleman, Flora E. Van Leeuwen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background:Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are at increased risk of second malignancies, but few studies have assessed colorectal cancer (CRC) risk after HL treatment. We assessed long-term, subsite-specific CRC risk associated with specific radiation fields and chemotherapy regimens.Methods:In a Dutch cohort of 3121 5-year HL survivors treated between 1965 and 1995, subsite-specific CRC incidence was compared with general population rates. Treatment effects were quantified by Cox regression analyses.Results:After a median follow-up of 22.9 years, 55 patients developed CRC. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR) was 2.4-fold increased (95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.8-3.2), leading to 5.7 excess cases per 10 000 patient-years. Risk was still increased 30 years after HL treatment (SIR: 2.8; 95%CI: 1.6-4.6). The highest (SIR: 6.5, 95%CI: 3.3-11.3) was seen for transverse colon cancer (15.0 (95%CI: 4.3-40.8) after inverted-Y irradiation). A prescribed cumulative procarbazine dose >4.2 g m â '2 was associated with a 3.3-fold higher CRC risk (95%CI: 1.8-6.1) compared to treatment without procarbazine. Patients receiving >4.2 g m â '2 procarbazine and infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy had a hazard ratio of 6.8 (95%CI: 3.0-15.6) compared with patients receiving neither treatment, which is significantly higher than an additive joint effect (P additivity =0.004).Conclusions:Colorectal cancer surveillance should be considered for HL survivors who received Infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy and a high cumulative procarbazine dose.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-314
Number of pages9
JournalBritish Journal of Cancer
Volume117
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jul 2017

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