Intake of vegetables, legumes, and fruit, and risk for all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in a European diabetic population

Ute Nöthlings*, Matthias B. Schulze, Cornelia Weikert, Heiner Boeing, Yvonne T. Van Der Schouw, Christina Bamia, Vasiliki Benetou, Pagona Lagiou, Vittorio Krogh, Joline W.J. Beulens, Petra H.M. Peeters, Jytte Halkjær, Anne Tjønneland, Rosario Tumino, Salvatore Panico, Giovanna Masala, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Blandine De Lauzon, Marie Christine Boutron-Ruault, Marie Noël VercambreRudolf Kaaks, Jakob Linseisen, Kim Overvad, Larraitz Arriola, Eva Ardanaz, Carlos A. Gonzalez, Marie Jose Tormo, Sheila Bingham, Kay Tee Khaw, Tim J.A. Key, Paolo Vineis, Elio Riboli, Pietro Ferrari, Paolo Boffetta, H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Daphne L. Van Der A, Göran Berglund, Elisabet Wirfält, Göran Hallmans, Ingegerd Johansson, Eiliv Lund, Antonia Trichopoulo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

We examined the associations of intake of vegetables, legumes and fruit with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a population with prevalent diabetes in Europe. A cohort of 10,449 participantswith self-reported diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition studywas followed for a mean of 9 y. Intakes of vegetables, legumes, and fruitwere assessed at baseline between 1992 and 2000 using validated country-specific questionnaires. A total of 1346 deaths occurred. Multivariate relative risks (RR) for all-cause mortality were estimated in Cox regression models and RR for cause-specific mortality were derived in a competing riskmodel. An increment in intake of total vegetables, legumes, and fruit of 80 g/d was associated with a RR of death from all causes of 0.94 [95% CI 0.90-0.98]. Analyzed separately, vegetables and legumes were associated with a significantly reduced risk, whereas nonsignificant inverse associations for fruit intake were observed. Cardiovascular disease (CVD)mortality andmortalitydue to non-CVD/non-cancer causeswere significantly inversely associated with intake of total vegetables, legumes, and fruit (RR 0.88 [95%CI 0.81-0.95] and 0.90 [0.82-0.99], respectively) but not cancer mortality (1.08 [0.99-1.17]). Intake of vegetables, legumes, and fruit was associated with reduced risks of allcause and CVD mortality in a diabetic population. The findings support the current state of evidence from general population studies that the protective potential of vegetable and fruit intake is larger for CVD than for cancer and suggest that diabetes patientsmay benefit from a diet high in vegetables and fruits.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)775-781
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume138
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2008

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