Iron Deficiency in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: The Use of Zincprotoporphyrin and Red Blood Cell Distribution Width

Marjolijn D. Akkermans, Mirjam Vreugdenhil, Daniëlle M. Hendriks, Anemone Van Den Berg, Joachim J. Schweizer, Johannes B. Van Goudoever, Frank Brus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is either an absolute (depleted iron stores) or a functional deficiency (caused by chronic inflammation). Differentiating between these 2 types of ID is important because they require a different therapeutic approach. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are parameters of functional ID. Studies using these parameters to differentiate are nonexistent. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for absolute and functional ID in paediatric IBD patients while using ZPP and RDW. Methods: We evaluated the iron status and medical charts of 59 paediatric IBD patients in a secondary hospital in the Netherlands. Absolute ID was defined as serum ferritin <15&hairsp;μg/L in the absence of infection and/or acute inflammation (C-reactive protein <10&hairsp;mg/L). Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was defined as absolute ID in combination with anaemia. Functional ID, in patients without absolute ID, was defined as ZPP >70&hairsp;μmol/mol haem and/or an RDW >14%. Anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) was defined as functional ID in combination with anaemia. Results: Absolute and functional ID were found in 19/59 (32.2%) and 32/40 (80%) patients, respectively. The prevalence of IDA and ACD was 27.1% (16/59) and 20% (8/40), respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that absolute ID and IDA were both associated with a more recent IBD-diagnosis (both P < 0.05). Conclusions: Absolute and functional ID are common in paediatric IBD patients, and this differentiation is important because of therapeutic consequences. Furthermore, absolute ID and IDA are associated with a more recent IBD-diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)949-954
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Volume64
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2017

Cite this

Akkermans, Marjolijn D. ; Vreugdenhil, Mirjam ; Hendriks, Daniëlle M. ; Van Den Berg, Anemone ; Schweizer, Joachim J. ; Van Goudoever, Johannes B. ; Brus, Frank. / Iron Deficiency in Inflammatory Bowel Disease : The Use of Zincprotoporphyrin and Red Blood Cell Distribution Width. In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2017 ; Vol. 64, No. 6. pp. 949-954.
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title = "Iron Deficiency in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: The Use of Zincprotoporphyrin and Red Blood Cell Distribution Width",
abstract = "Objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is either an absolute (depleted iron stores) or a functional deficiency (caused by chronic inflammation). Differentiating between these 2 types of ID is important because they require a different therapeutic approach. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are parameters of functional ID. Studies using these parameters to differentiate are nonexistent. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for absolute and functional ID in paediatric IBD patients while using ZPP and RDW. Methods: We evaluated the iron status and medical charts of 59 paediatric IBD patients in a secondary hospital in the Netherlands. Absolute ID was defined as serum ferritin <15&hairsp;μg/L in the absence of infection and/or acute inflammation (C-reactive protein <10&hairsp;mg/L). Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was defined as absolute ID in combination with anaemia. Functional ID, in patients without absolute ID, was defined as ZPP >70&hairsp;μmol/mol haem and/or an RDW >14{\%}. Anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) was defined as functional ID in combination with anaemia. Results: Absolute and functional ID were found in 19/59 (32.2{\%}) and 32/40 (80{\%}) patients, respectively. The prevalence of IDA and ACD was 27.1{\%} (16/59) and 20{\%} (8/40), respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that absolute ID and IDA were both associated with a more recent IBD-diagnosis (both P < 0.05). Conclusions: Absolute and functional ID are common in paediatric IBD patients, and this differentiation is important because of therapeutic consequences. Furthermore, absolute ID and IDA are associated with a more recent IBD-diagnosis.",
keywords = "absolute iron deficiency, functional iron deficiency, inflammatory bowel disease, iron-restricted erythropoiesis, red blood cell distribution width, zinc protoporphyrin",
author = "Akkermans, {Marjolijn D.} and Mirjam Vreugdenhil and Hendriks, {Dani{\"e}lle M.} and {Van Den Berg}, Anemone and Schweizer, {Joachim J.} and {Van Goudoever}, {Johannes B.} and Frank Brus",
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Iron Deficiency in Inflammatory Bowel Disease : The Use of Zincprotoporphyrin and Red Blood Cell Distribution Width. / Akkermans, Marjolijn D.; Vreugdenhil, Mirjam; Hendriks, Daniëlle M.; Van Den Berg, Anemone; Schweizer, Joachim J.; Van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Brus, Frank.

In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Vol. 64, No. 6, 01.06.2017, p. 949-954.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Iron Deficiency in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

T2 - The Use of Zincprotoporphyrin and Red Blood Cell Distribution Width

AU - Akkermans, Marjolijn D.

AU - Vreugdenhil, Mirjam

AU - Hendriks, Daniëlle M.

AU - Van Den Berg, Anemone

AU - Schweizer, Joachim J.

AU - Van Goudoever, Johannes B.

AU - Brus, Frank

PY - 2017/6/1

Y1 - 2017/6/1

N2 - Objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is either an absolute (depleted iron stores) or a functional deficiency (caused by chronic inflammation). Differentiating between these 2 types of ID is important because they require a different therapeutic approach. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are parameters of functional ID. Studies using these parameters to differentiate are nonexistent. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for absolute and functional ID in paediatric IBD patients while using ZPP and RDW. Methods: We evaluated the iron status and medical charts of 59 paediatric IBD patients in a secondary hospital in the Netherlands. Absolute ID was defined as serum ferritin <15&hairsp;μg/L in the absence of infection and/or acute inflammation (C-reactive protein <10&hairsp;mg/L). Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was defined as absolute ID in combination with anaemia. Functional ID, in patients without absolute ID, was defined as ZPP >70&hairsp;μmol/mol haem and/or an RDW >14%. Anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) was defined as functional ID in combination with anaemia. Results: Absolute and functional ID were found in 19/59 (32.2%) and 32/40 (80%) patients, respectively. The prevalence of IDA and ACD was 27.1% (16/59) and 20% (8/40), respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that absolute ID and IDA were both associated with a more recent IBD-diagnosis (both P < 0.05). Conclusions: Absolute and functional ID are common in paediatric IBD patients, and this differentiation is important because of therapeutic consequences. Furthermore, absolute ID and IDA are associated with a more recent IBD-diagnosis.

AB - Objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is either an absolute (depleted iron stores) or a functional deficiency (caused by chronic inflammation). Differentiating between these 2 types of ID is important because they require a different therapeutic approach. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are parameters of functional ID. Studies using these parameters to differentiate are nonexistent. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for absolute and functional ID in paediatric IBD patients while using ZPP and RDW. Methods: We evaluated the iron status and medical charts of 59 paediatric IBD patients in a secondary hospital in the Netherlands. Absolute ID was defined as serum ferritin <15&hairsp;μg/L in the absence of infection and/or acute inflammation (C-reactive protein <10&hairsp;mg/L). Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was defined as absolute ID in combination with anaemia. Functional ID, in patients without absolute ID, was defined as ZPP >70&hairsp;μmol/mol haem and/or an RDW >14%. Anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) was defined as functional ID in combination with anaemia. Results: Absolute and functional ID were found in 19/59 (32.2%) and 32/40 (80%) patients, respectively. The prevalence of IDA and ACD was 27.1% (16/59) and 20% (8/40), respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that absolute ID and IDA were both associated with a more recent IBD-diagnosis (both P < 0.05). Conclusions: Absolute and functional ID are common in paediatric IBD patients, and this differentiation is important because of therapeutic consequences. Furthermore, absolute ID and IDA are associated with a more recent IBD-diagnosis.

KW - absolute iron deficiency

KW - functional iron deficiency

KW - inflammatory bowel disease

KW - iron-restricted erythropoiesis

KW - red blood cell distribution width

KW - zinc protoporphyrin

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