Purpose: Emerging evidence shows that changes in the bone and its microenvironment following radiotherapy are associated with either an inhibition or a state of low bone formation. Ionizing radiation is damaging to the jawbone as it increases the complication rate due to the development of hypovascular, hypocellular, and hypoxic tissue. This review summarizes and correlates the current knowledge on the effects of irradiation on the bone with an emphasis on jawbone, as these have been a less extensively studied area. Conclusions: The stringent regulation of bone formation and bone resorption can be influenced by radiation, causing detrimental effects at structural, cellular, vascular, and molecular levels. It is also associated with a high risk of damage to surrounding healthy tissues and an increased risk of fracture. Technological advances and research on animal models as well as a few human bone tissue studies have provided novel insights into the ways in which bone can be affected by high, low and sublethal dose of radiation. The influence of radiation on bone metabolism, cellular properties, vascularity, collagen, and other factors like inflammation, reactive oxygen species are discussed.