Objective. To determine whether intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a predisposing factor for high blood pressure (BP) in 19-year-olds who were born (very) preterm. Methods. A prospective follow-up study was conducted at age 19 in individuals who born preterm in the Netherlands in 1983. Systolic, diastolic, and mean BP values and plasma renin activity concentration were obtained in 422 young adults who were born with a gestational age (GA) <32 weeks. BP values were also measured in 174 individuals who born with a GA of ≥32 weeks and a birth weight of <1500 g. Results. An increased prevalence of hypertension and probably also of prehypertensive stage was found. IUGR, birth weight, GA, and plasma renin activity were not associated with BP. Current weight and BMI were the best predicting factors for systolic BP at the age of 19 years. Conclusions. The prevalence of hypertension is high in individuals who were born preterm when compared with the general population. In the individuals who were born very preterm, no support to the hypothesis that low birth weight is associated with increased BP at young adult age can be given. Copyright © 2005 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.