Ischemic Burden Reduction and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes After Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Stefan P. Schumacher, Wijnand J. Stuijfzand, Ruben W. de Winter, Pepijn A. van Diemen, Michiel J. Bom, Henk Everaars, Roel S. Driessen, Lara Kamperman, Marly Kockx, Bram S. H. Hagen, Pieter G. Raijmakers, Peter M. van de Ven, Albert C. van Rossum, Maksymilian P. Opolski, Alexander Nap, Paul Knaapen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objectives: The authors sought to evaluate the impact of ischemic burden reduction after chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on long-term prognosis and cardiac symptom relief. Background: The clinical benefit of CTO PCI is questioned. Methods: In a high-volume CTO PCI center, 212 patients prospectively underwent quantitative [ 15O]H 2O positron emission tomography perfusion imaging before and three months after successful CTO PCI between 2013-2019. Perfusion defects (PD) (in segments) and hyperemic myocardial blood flow (hMBF) (in ml · min −1 · g −1) allocated to CTO areas were related to prognostic outcomes using unadjusted (Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank test) and risk-adjusted (multivariable Cox regression) analyses. The prognostic endpoint was a composite of all-cause death and nonfatal myocardial infarction. Results: After a median [interquartile range] of 2.8 years [1.8 to 4.3 years], event-free survival was superior in patients with ≥3 versus <3 segment PD reduction (p < 0.01; risk-adjusted p = 0.04; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13 to 0.93]) and with hMBF increase above (Δ≥1.11 ml · min −1 · g −1) versus below the population median (p < 0.01; risk-adjusted p < 0.01; HR: 0.16 [95% CI: 0.05 to 0.54]) after CTO PCI. Furthermore, event-free survival was superior in patients without versus any residual PD (p < 0.01; risk-adjusted p = 0.02; HR: 0.22 [95% CI: 0.06 to 0.76]) or with a residual hMBF level >2.3 versus ≤2.3 ml · min −1 · g −1 (p < 0.01; risk-adjusted p = 0.03; HR: 0.25 [95% CI: 0.07 to 0.91]) at follow-up positron emission tomography. Patients with residual hMBF >2.3 ml · min −1 · g −1 were more frequently free of angina and dyspnea on exertion at long-term follow-up (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Patients with extensive ischemic burden reduction and no residual ischemia after CTO PCI had lower rates of all-cause death and nonfatal myocardial infarction. Long-term cardiac symptom relief was associated with normalization of hMBF levels after CTO PCI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1407-1418
Number of pages12
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jul 2021

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