Lectin-mediated binding and sialoglycans of porcine surfactant protein D synergistically neutralize influenza A virus

Martin van Eijk, Michael J. Rynkiewicz, Kshitij Khatri, Nancy Leymarie, Joseph Zaia, Mitchell R. White, Kevan L. Hartshorn, Tanya R. Cafarella, Irma van Die, Martin Hessing, Barbara A. Seaton, Henk P. Haagsman

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Innate immunity is critical in the early containment of influenza A virus (IAV) infection, and surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a crucial role in the pulmonary defense against IAV. In pigs, which are important intermediate hosts during the generation of pandemic IAVs, SP-D uses its unique carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to interact with IAV. An N-linked CRD glycosylation provides interactions with the sialic acid– binding site of IAV, and a tripeptide loop at the lectin-binding site facilitates enhanced interactions with IAV glycans. Here, to investigate both mechanisms of IAV neutralization in greater detail, we produced an N-glycosylated neck-CRD fragment of porcine SP-D (RpNCRD) in HEK293 cells. X-ray crystallography disclosed that the N-glycan did not alter the CRD backbone structure, including the lectin site conformation, but revealed a potential second nonlectin-binding site for glycans. IAV hemagglutination inhibition, IAV aggregation, and neutralization of IAV infection studies showed that RpNCRD, unlike the human analogue RhNCRD, exhibits potent neutralizing activity against pandemic A/Aichi/68 (H3N2), enabled by both porcine-specific structural features of its CRD. MS analysis revealed an N-glycan site-occupancy of >98% at Asn-303 of RpNCRD with complex-type, heterogeneously branched and predominantly (2,3)-sia-lylated oligosaccharides. Glycan-binding array data characterized both RpNCRD and RhNCRD as mannose-type lectins. RpNCRD also bound LewisY structures, whereas RhNCRD bound polylactosamine-containing glycans. The presence of the N-glycan in the CRD increases the glycan-binding specificity of RpNCRD. These insights increase our understanding of porcine-specific innate defense against pandemic IAV and may inform the design of recombinant SP-D– based antiviral drugs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10646-10662
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number27
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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