Lifestyle and emotional well-being in men and women with type 2 diabetes (e-VitaDM-4; ZODIAC-48)

Steven H. Hendriks, Evelien G.W. van Soldt, Michael van Vugt, Klaas H. Groenier, Yvonne Roelofsen, Angela H. E. M. Maas, Henk J. G. Bilo, Nanne Kleefstra, Kornelis J. J. van Hateren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND: Whether lifestyle is associated with well-being in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is largely unknown. Uncovering and clarifying associations between these constructs may lead to new strategies for improving both.

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate the relationship between lifestyle and well-being, focussing on gender differences.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1085 patients with T2D that participated in the e-Vita part of the Zwolle outpatient diabetes project integrating available care (ZODIAC) study. Patients were included from May 2012 until September 2014 from 52 general practices. Emotional well-being was assessed with the World Health Organization-5 well-being index (WHO-5). Lifestyle information on body mass index, smoking, physical activity and alcohol use was extracted from self-reported questionnaires. Multiple linear regression analyses were used.

RESULTS: After adjustment for other lifestyle factors, physical activity, smoking and drinking 22-35 alcohol consumptions per week were associated with the WHO-5 score in men and physical activity and smoking were associated with the WHO-5 score in women. In the fully adjusted analyses for the total study population, physical activity and smoking were still associated with the WHO-5 score (b = 1.1, P < .001 and b =-3.1, P = .018, respectively). In the fully adjusted analyses stratified to gender only physical activity was associated with the WHO-5 score (in men: b =0.8, P = .006, in women: b = 1.4, P = .001).

CONCLUSION: This study shows a negative, non-clinically relevant association between smoking and emotional well-being in the total population with T2D and a positive, non-clinically relevant association between physical activity and emotional well-being in both men and women with T2D.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-90
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of General Practice
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017

Cite this