BACKGROUND: Whether lifestyle is associated with well-being in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is largely unknown. Uncovering and clarifying associations between these constructs may lead to new strategies for improving both.
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate the relationship between lifestyle and well-being, focussing on gender differences.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1085 patients with T2D that participated in the e-Vita part of the Zwolle outpatient diabetes project integrating available care (ZODIAC) study. Patients were included from May 2012 until September 2014 from 52 general practices. Emotional well-being was assessed with the World Health Organization-5 well-being index (WHO-5). Lifestyle information on body mass index, smoking, physical activity and alcohol use was extracted from self-reported questionnaires. Multiple linear regression analyses were used.
RESULTS: After adjustment for other lifestyle factors, physical activity, smoking and drinking 22-35 alcohol consumptions per week were associated with the WHO-5 score in men and physical activity and smoking were associated with the WHO-5 score in women. In the fully adjusted analyses for the total study population, physical activity and smoking were still associated with the WHO-5 score (b = 1.1, P < .001 and b =-3.1, P = .018, respectively). In the fully adjusted analyses stratified to gender only physical activity was associated with the WHO-5 score (in men: b =0.8, P = .006, in women: b = 1.4, P = .001).
CONCLUSION: This study shows a negative, non-clinically relevant association between smoking and emotional well-being in the total population with T2D and a positive, non-clinically relevant association between physical activity and emotional well-being in both men and women with T2D.