Orphan medicinal products (OMPs) are often authorized based on pivotal phase II and III trials that do not always meet high quality criteria. Laronidase is an example of an OMP used for treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I). One randomized controlled trial demonstrated efficacy on several somatic symptoms. However, effectiveness in the real-world setting remains to be determined. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on clinically relevant outcomes in MPS I. A search in OVID MEDLINE and OVID EMBASE was performed. Postmarketing studies including MPS I patients treated with ERT and reporting data on any of 19 predefined clinical outcome measures obtained before the start of ERT and at follow-up were eligible. Three scenarios were used to define effectiveness of ERT. The first scenario (A) assumes that improvement is essential, while the second scenario (B) also includes stabilization of signs and symptoms. The third scenario (C) defines failure of therapy. Twenty case series were included. The criteria indicating effectiveness (A), were met for four of 19 outcome measures while the criteria, indicating unclear effectiveness (B) were met for five of 19. For one of 19 nonverifiable data were reported and for nine of 19 no overall conclusions could be drawn (ambiguous results). Real-world effectiveness of laronidase is extremely difficult to assess, 15 years after marketing authorization. This is partially due to insufficient natural history data. We recommend the conduct of rigorous and independent postmarketing studies including core outcome sets for OMPs, enforced by marketing and/or reimbursing authorities aiming to demonstrate real-world effectiveness within a reasonable time frame.