Background: In the West, low rectal cancer patients with abnormal lateral lymph nodes (LLNs) are commonly treated with neoadjuvant (chemo)radiotherapy (nCRT) followed by total mesorectal excision (TME). Additionally, some perform a lateral lymph node dissection (LLND). To date, no comparative data (nCRT vs. nCRT + LLND) are available in Western patients. Methods: An international multi-centre cohort study was conducted at six centres from the Netherlands, US and Australia. Patients with low rectal cancers from the Netherlands and Australia with abnormal LLNs (≥5 mm short-axis in the obturator, internal iliac, external iliac and/or common iliac basin) who underwent nCRT and TME (LLND-group) were compared to similarly staged patients from the US who underwent a LLND in addition to nCRT and TME (LLND + group). Results: LLND + patients (n = 44) were younger with higher ASA-classifications and ypN-stages compared to LLND-patients (n = 115). LLND + patients had larger median LLNs short-axes and received more adjuvant chemotherapy (100 vs. 30%; p < 0.0001). Between groups, the local recurrence rate (LRR) was 3% for LLND + vs. 11% for LLND- (p = 0.13). Disease-free survival (DFS, p = 0.94) and overall survival (OS, p = 0.42) were similar. On multivariable analysis, LLND was an independent significant factor for local recurrences (p = 0.01). Sub-analysis of patients who underwent long-course nCRT and had adjuvant chemotherapy (LLND-n = 30, LLND + n = 44) demonstrated a lower LRR for LLND + patients (3% vs. 16% for LLND-; p = 0.04). DFS (p = 0.10) and OS (p = 0.11) were similar between groups. Conclusion: A LLND in addition to nCRT may improve loco-regional control in Western patients with low rectal cancer and abnormal LLNs. Larger studies in Western patients are required to evaluate its contribution.