Lung ultrasound compared with chest X-ray in diagnosing postoperative pulmonary complications following cardiothoracic surgery: a prospective observational study

H R Touw, K L Parlevliet, M Beerepoot, P Schober, A Vonk, J W Twisk, P W Elbers, C Boer, P R Tuinman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Postoperative pulmonary complications are common after cardiothoracic surgery and are associated with adverse outcomes. The ability to detect postoperative pulmonary complications using chest X-rays is limited, and this technique requires radiation exposure. Little is known about the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound for the detection of postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiothoracic surgery, and we therefore aimed to compare lung ultrasound with chest X-ray to detect postoperative pulmonary complications in this group of patients. We performed this prospective, observational, single-centre study in a tertiary intensive care unit treating adult patients who had undergone cardiothoracic surgery. We recorded chest X-ray findings upon admission and on postoperative days 2 and 3, as well as rates of postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications that required therapy according to the treating physician as part of their standard clinical practice. Lung ultrasound was performed by an independent researcher at the time of chest X-ray. We compared lung ultrasound with chest X-ray for the detection of postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications. We also assessed inter-observer agreement for lung ultrasound, and the time to perform both imaging techniques. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare the time to detection of clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications by both modalities. We recruited a total of 177 patients in whom both lung ultrasound and chest X-ray imaging were performed. Lung ultrasound identified 159 (90%) postoperative pulmonary complications on the day of admission compared with 107 (61%) identified with chest X-ray (p < 0.001). Lung ultrasound identified 11 out of 17 patients (65%) and chest X-ray 7 out of 17 patients (41%) with clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications (p < 0.001). The clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications were detected earlier using lung ultrasound compared with chest X-ray (p = 0.024). Overall inter-observer agreement for lung ultrasound was excellent (κ = 0.907, p < 0.001). Following cardiothoracic surgery, lung ultrasound detected more postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications than chest X-ray, and at an earlier time-point. Our results suggest lung ultrasound may be used as the primary imaging technique to search for postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiothoracic surgery, and will enhance bedside decision making.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)946-954
Number of pages9
JournalAnaesthesia
Volume73
Issue number8
Early online date12 Mar 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Cite this

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title = "Lung ultrasound compared with chest X-ray in diagnosing postoperative pulmonary complications following cardiothoracic surgery: a prospective observational study",
abstract = "Postoperative pulmonary complications are common after cardiothoracic surgery and are associated with adverse outcomes. The ability to detect postoperative pulmonary complications using chest X-rays is limited, and this technique requires radiation exposure. Little is known about the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound for the detection of postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiothoracic surgery, and we therefore aimed to compare lung ultrasound with chest X-ray to detect postoperative pulmonary complications in this group of patients. We performed this prospective, observational, single-centre study in a tertiary intensive care unit treating adult patients who had undergone cardiothoracic surgery. We recorded chest X-ray findings upon admission and on postoperative days 2 and 3, as well as rates of postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications that required therapy according to the treating physician as part of their standard clinical practice. Lung ultrasound was performed by an independent researcher at the time of chest X-ray. We compared lung ultrasound with chest X-ray for the detection of postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications. We also assessed inter-observer agreement for lung ultrasound, and the time to perform both imaging techniques. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare the time to detection of clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications by both modalities. We recruited a total of 177 patients in whom both lung ultrasound and chest X-ray imaging were performed. Lung ultrasound identified 159 (90{\%}) postoperative pulmonary complications on the day of admission compared with 107 (61{\%}) identified with chest X-ray (p < 0.001). Lung ultrasound identified 11 out of 17 patients (65{\%}) and chest X-ray 7 out of 17 patients (41{\%}) with clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications (p < 0.001). The clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications were detected earlier using lung ultrasound compared with chest X-ray (p = 0.024). Overall inter-observer agreement for lung ultrasound was excellent (κ = 0.907, p < 0.001). Following cardiothoracic surgery, lung ultrasound detected more postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications than chest X-ray, and at an earlier time-point. Our results suggest lung ultrasound may be used as the primary imaging technique to search for postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiothoracic surgery, and will enhance bedside decision making.",
author = "Touw, {H R} and Parlevliet, {K L} and M Beerepoot and P Schober and A Vonk and Twisk, {J W} and Elbers, {P W} and C Boer and Tuinman, {P R}",
note = "{\circledC} 2018 The Authors. Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.",
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T1 - Lung ultrasound compared with chest X-ray in diagnosing postoperative pulmonary complications following cardiothoracic surgery

T2 - a prospective observational study

AU - Touw, H R

AU - Parlevliet, K L

AU - Beerepoot, M

AU - Schober, P

AU - Vonk, A

AU - Twisk, J W

AU - Elbers, P W

AU - Boer, C

AU - Tuinman, P R

N1 - © 2018 The Authors. Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Postoperative pulmonary complications are common after cardiothoracic surgery and are associated with adverse outcomes. The ability to detect postoperative pulmonary complications using chest X-rays is limited, and this technique requires radiation exposure. Little is known about the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound for the detection of postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiothoracic surgery, and we therefore aimed to compare lung ultrasound with chest X-ray to detect postoperative pulmonary complications in this group of patients. We performed this prospective, observational, single-centre study in a tertiary intensive care unit treating adult patients who had undergone cardiothoracic surgery. We recorded chest X-ray findings upon admission and on postoperative days 2 and 3, as well as rates of postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications that required therapy according to the treating physician as part of their standard clinical practice. Lung ultrasound was performed by an independent researcher at the time of chest X-ray. We compared lung ultrasound with chest X-ray for the detection of postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications. We also assessed inter-observer agreement for lung ultrasound, and the time to perform both imaging techniques. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare the time to detection of clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications by both modalities. We recruited a total of 177 patients in whom both lung ultrasound and chest X-ray imaging were performed. Lung ultrasound identified 159 (90%) postoperative pulmonary complications on the day of admission compared with 107 (61%) identified with chest X-ray (p < 0.001). Lung ultrasound identified 11 out of 17 patients (65%) and chest X-ray 7 out of 17 patients (41%) with clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications (p < 0.001). The clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications were detected earlier using lung ultrasound compared with chest X-ray (p = 0.024). Overall inter-observer agreement for lung ultrasound was excellent (κ = 0.907, p < 0.001). Following cardiothoracic surgery, lung ultrasound detected more postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications than chest X-ray, and at an earlier time-point. Our results suggest lung ultrasound may be used as the primary imaging technique to search for postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiothoracic surgery, and will enhance bedside decision making.

AB - Postoperative pulmonary complications are common after cardiothoracic surgery and are associated with adverse outcomes. The ability to detect postoperative pulmonary complications using chest X-rays is limited, and this technique requires radiation exposure. Little is known about the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound for the detection of postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiothoracic surgery, and we therefore aimed to compare lung ultrasound with chest X-ray to detect postoperative pulmonary complications in this group of patients. We performed this prospective, observational, single-centre study in a tertiary intensive care unit treating adult patients who had undergone cardiothoracic surgery. We recorded chest X-ray findings upon admission and on postoperative days 2 and 3, as well as rates of postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications that required therapy according to the treating physician as part of their standard clinical practice. Lung ultrasound was performed by an independent researcher at the time of chest X-ray. We compared lung ultrasound with chest X-ray for the detection of postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications. We also assessed inter-observer agreement for lung ultrasound, and the time to perform both imaging techniques. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare the time to detection of clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications by both modalities. We recruited a total of 177 patients in whom both lung ultrasound and chest X-ray imaging were performed. Lung ultrasound identified 159 (90%) postoperative pulmonary complications on the day of admission compared with 107 (61%) identified with chest X-ray (p < 0.001). Lung ultrasound identified 11 out of 17 patients (65%) and chest X-ray 7 out of 17 patients (41%) with clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications (p < 0.001). The clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications were detected earlier using lung ultrasound compared with chest X-ray (p = 0.024). Overall inter-observer agreement for lung ultrasound was excellent (κ = 0.907, p < 0.001). Following cardiothoracic surgery, lung ultrasound detected more postoperative pulmonary complications and clinically-relevant postoperative pulmonary complications than chest X-ray, and at an earlier time-point. Our results suggest lung ultrasound may be used as the primary imaging technique to search for postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiothoracic surgery, and will enhance bedside decision making.

U2 - 10.1111/anae.14243

DO - 10.1111/anae.14243

M3 - Article

VL - 73

SP - 946

EP - 954

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JF - Anaesthesia

SN - 0003-2409

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