Dendritic cells (DCs) are involved in the pathogenesis of measles virus (MV) infection by inducing immune suppression and possibly spreading the virus from the respiratory tract to lymphatic tissues. It is becoming evident that DC function can be modulated by the involvement of different receptors in pathogen interaction. Therefore, we have investigated the relative contributions of different MV-specific receptors on DCs to MV uptake into and infection of these cells. DCs express the MV receptors CD46 and CD150, and we demonstrate that the C-type lectin DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is a novel receptor for laboratory-adapted and wild-type MV strains. The ligands for DC-SIGN are both MV glycoproteins F and H. In contrast to CD46 and CD150, DC-SIGN does not support MV entry, since DC-SIGN does not confer susceptibility when stably expressed in CHO cells. However, DC-SIGN is important for the infection of immature DCs with MV, since both attachment and infection of immature DCs with MV are blocked in the presence of DC-SIGN inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that DC-SIGN is crucial as an attachment receptor to enhance CD46/CD150-mediated infection of DCs in cis. Moreover, MV might not only target DC-SIGN to infect DCs but may also use DC-SIGN for viral transmission and immune suppression.