Measurable residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia using flow cytometry: approaches for harmonization/standardization

Gerrit J. Schuurhuis*, Gert J. Ossenkoppele, Angèle Kelder, Jacqueline Cloos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Introduction: Measurable residual disease (MRD) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rapidly evolving area with many institutes embarking on it, both in academic and pharmaceutical settings. However, there is a multitude of approaches to design, perform, and report flow cytometric MRD. Together with the long-term experience needed, this makes flow cytometric MRD in AML nonstandardized and time-consuming. Areas covered: This paper briefly summarizes critical issues, like sample preparation and transport, markers and fluorochromes of choice, but in particular focuses on the main issues, which includes specificity and sensitivity, hereby providing a new model that may circumvent the main disadvantages of the present approaches. New approaches that may add to the value of flow cytometric MRD includes assessment of leukemia stem cells, MRD in peripheral blood, and approaches to use multidimensional image analysis. Expert commentary: MRD in AML requires standardization/harmonization on many aspects, for which the present paper offers possible guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)921-935
Number of pages15
JournalExpert Review of Hematology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2 Dec 2018

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