Medial gastrocnemius volume and echo-intensity after botulinum neurotoxin A interventions in children with spastic cerebral palsy

Simon Henri Schless*, Francesco Cenni, Lynn Bar-On, Britta Hanssen, Barbara Kalkman, Thomas O'brien, Erwin Aertbeliën, Anja Van Campenhout, Guy Molenaers, Kaat Desloovere

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Aim: This cross-sectional investigation evaluated whether recurrent botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) interventions to the medial gastrocnemius have an influence on muscle morphology, beyond Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level. Method: A cohort of typically developing children (n=67; 43 males, 24 females; median age 9y 11mo [range 7y 10mo–11y 6mo]), a cohort of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) naive to BoNT-A interventions (No-BoNT-A; n=19; 10 males, nine females; median age 9y 3mo [range 8y 5mo–10y 10mo]) and a cohort of children with spastic CP with a minimum of three recurrent BoNT-A interventions to the medial gastrocnemius (BoNT-A; n=19; 13 males, six females; median age 9y 8mo [range 7y 3mo–10y 7mo]) were recruited. Three-dimensional freehand ultrasound was used to estimate medial gastrocnemius volume normalized to body mass and echo-intensity. Results: Normalized medial gastrocnemius volume and echo-intensity significantly differed between the two spastic CP cohorts (p≤0.05), with the BoNT-A cohort having larger alterations. Associations between normalized medial gastrocnemius volume and echo-intensity were highest in the No-BoNT-A cohort, followed by the BoNT-A cohort. Multiple regression analyses revealed that both GMFCS level and BoNT-A intervention history were significantly associated with smaller normalized medial gastrocnemius volume and higher echo-intensity. Interpretation: Recurrent BoNT-A interventions may induce alterations to medial gastrocnemius volume and echo-intensity beyond the natural history of the spastic CP pathology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number 10.1111/dmcn.14056
JournalDevelopmental Medicine and Child Neurology
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2018

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