Gender awareness in medicine consists of two attitudinal components: gender sensitivity and gender-role ideology. In this article, the development of a scale to measure these attitudes in Dutch medical students is described. After a pilot study and a feasibility study, 393 medical students in The Netherlands responded to a preliminary instrument consisting of 82 items (response rate 61.3%). Reliability and validity were established. A gender awareness scale containing a gender sensitivity subscale (14 items), and gender stereotypes towards patients (11 items) as well as towards doctors (7 items) was developed. The instrument may be used for research purposes to evaluate gender awareness raising courses.