A reduced incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer among users of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARb) has been reported. A similar effect is suggested for cutaneous melanoma. We aimed to investigate the possible association between use of ACEi and ARb and the risk of cutaneous melanoma. A general population-based case control study with the PHARMO database, containing drug-dispensing records from community pharmacies and the national pathology database (PALGA) was conducted. Cases were patients with a primary cutaneous melanoma between January 1st 1991 and December 14th 2004, aged > or =18 years and having > or =3 years of follow-up prior to diagnosis. Finally, 1272 cases and 6520 matched controls were included. Multivariable conditional logistic regression showed no statistically significant associations between the incidence of melanoma and the use of ACEi (adjusted OR=1.0, 95%CI: 0.8-1.3) or ARb (adjusted OR=1.0, 95%CI: 0.7-1.5). Thus, in this study, the use of ACEi or ARb does not seem to protect against the development of cutaneous melanoma. However, we cannot exclude an association between ACEi and ARb exposure and an increased or decreased incidence of cutaneous melanoma.