Metabolic and inflammatory markers: Associations with individual depressive symptoms

F. Lamers, Y. Milaneschi, P. De Jonge, E. J. Giltay, B. W.J.H. Penninx

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background Literature has shown that obesity, metabolic syndrome and inflammation are associated with depression, however, evidence suggests that these associations are specific to atypical depression. Which of the atypical symptoms are driving associations with obesity-related outcomes and inflammation is unknown. We evaluated associations between individual symptoms of depression (both atypical and non-atypical) and body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome components and inflammatory markers. Methods We included 808 persons with a current diagnosis of depression participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (67% female, mean age 41.6 years). Depressive symptoms were derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses adjusting for sex, age, educational level, depression severity, current smoking, physical activity, anti-inflammatory medication use, and statin use were performed. Results Increased appetite was positively associated with BMI, number of metabolic syndrome components, waist circumference, C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α. Decreased appetite was negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference. Psychomotor retardation was positively associated with BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and insomnia with number of metabolic syndrome components. Conclusion Increased appetite - in the context of a depressive episode - was the only symptom that was associated with both metabolic as well as inflammatory markers, and could be a key feature of an immuno-metabolic form of depression. This immuno-metabolic depression should be considered in clinical trials evaluating effectiveness of compounds targeting metabolic and inflammatory pathways or lifestyle interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1102-1110
Number of pages9
JournalPsychological Medicine
Volume48
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018

Cite this

@article{eb37c4ee38714f89a8c8697d5ce4afd7,
title = "Metabolic and inflammatory markers: Associations with individual depressive symptoms",
abstract = "Background Literature has shown that obesity, metabolic syndrome and inflammation are associated with depression, however, evidence suggests that these associations are specific to atypical depression. Which of the atypical symptoms are driving associations with obesity-related outcomes and inflammation is unknown. We evaluated associations between individual symptoms of depression (both atypical and non-atypical) and body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome components and inflammatory markers. Methods We included 808 persons with a current diagnosis of depression participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (67{\%} female, mean age 41.6 years). Depressive symptoms were derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses adjusting for sex, age, educational level, depression severity, current smoking, physical activity, anti-inflammatory medication use, and statin use were performed. Results Increased appetite was positively associated with BMI, number of metabolic syndrome components, waist circumference, C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α. Decreased appetite was negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference. Psychomotor retardation was positively associated with BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and insomnia with number of metabolic syndrome components. Conclusion Increased appetite - in the context of a depressive episode - was the only symptom that was associated with both metabolic as well as inflammatory markers, and could be a key feature of an immuno-metabolic form of depression. This immuno-metabolic depression should be considered in clinical trials evaluating effectiveness of compounds targeting metabolic and inflammatory pathways or lifestyle interventions.",
keywords = "Atypical depression, BMI, depressive disorder, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, symptoms",
author = "F. Lamers and Y. Milaneschi and {De Jonge}, P. and Giltay, {E. J.} and Penninx, {B. W.J.H.}",
year = "2018",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1017/S0033291717002483",
language = "English",
volume = "48",
pages = "1102--1110",
journal = "Psychological Medicine",
issn = "0033-2917",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",
number = "7",

}

Metabolic and inflammatory markers : Associations with individual depressive symptoms. / Lamers, F.; Milaneschi, Y.; De Jonge, P.; Giltay, E. J.; Penninx, B. W.J.H.

In: Psychological Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 7, 01.05.2018, p. 1102-1110.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Metabolic and inflammatory markers

T2 - Associations with individual depressive symptoms

AU - Lamers, F.

AU - Milaneschi, Y.

AU - De Jonge, P.

AU - Giltay, E. J.

AU - Penninx, B. W.J.H.

PY - 2018/5/1

Y1 - 2018/5/1

N2 - Background Literature has shown that obesity, metabolic syndrome and inflammation are associated with depression, however, evidence suggests that these associations are specific to atypical depression. Which of the atypical symptoms are driving associations with obesity-related outcomes and inflammation is unknown. We evaluated associations between individual symptoms of depression (both atypical and non-atypical) and body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome components and inflammatory markers. Methods We included 808 persons with a current diagnosis of depression participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (67% female, mean age 41.6 years). Depressive symptoms were derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses adjusting for sex, age, educational level, depression severity, current smoking, physical activity, anti-inflammatory medication use, and statin use were performed. Results Increased appetite was positively associated with BMI, number of metabolic syndrome components, waist circumference, C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α. Decreased appetite was negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference. Psychomotor retardation was positively associated with BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and insomnia with number of metabolic syndrome components. Conclusion Increased appetite - in the context of a depressive episode - was the only symptom that was associated with both metabolic as well as inflammatory markers, and could be a key feature of an immuno-metabolic form of depression. This immuno-metabolic depression should be considered in clinical trials evaluating effectiveness of compounds targeting metabolic and inflammatory pathways or lifestyle interventions.

AB - Background Literature has shown that obesity, metabolic syndrome and inflammation are associated with depression, however, evidence suggests that these associations are specific to atypical depression. Which of the atypical symptoms are driving associations with obesity-related outcomes and inflammation is unknown. We evaluated associations between individual symptoms of depression (both atypical and non-atypical) and body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome components and inflammatory markers. Methods We included 808 persons with a current diagnosis of depression participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (67% female, mean age 41.6 years). Depressive symptoms were derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses adjusting for sex, age, educational level, depression severity, current smoking, physical activity, anti-inflammatory medication use, and statin use were performed. Results Increased appetite was positively associated with BMI, number of metabolic syndrome components, waist circumference, C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α. Decreased appetite was negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference. Psychomotor retardation was positively associated with BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and insomnia with number of metabolic syndrome components. Conclusion Increased appetite - in the context of a depressive episode - was the only symptom that was associated with both metabolic as well as inflammatory markers, and could be a key feature of an immuno-metabolic form of depression. This immuno-metabolic depression should be considered in clinical trials evaluating effectiveness of compounds targeting metabolic and inflammatory pathways or lifestyle interventions.

KW - Atypical depression

KW - BMI

KW - depressive disorder

KW - inflammation

KW - metabolic syndrome

KW - symptoms

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85044473261&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/S0033291717002483

DO - 10.1017/S0033291717002483

M3 - Article

VL - 48

SP - 1102

EP - 1110

JO - Psychological Medicine

JF - Psychological Medicine

SN - 0033-2917

IS - 7

ER -