Fetal growth retardation is associated with decreased postnatal growth, resulting in a lower adult height. In addition, a low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of developing diseases during adulthood, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases. Children with persistent postnatal growth retardation, i.e., incomplete catch-up growth, can be treated with human GH. The GH/IGF-I axis is involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The question of whether treatment with GH in children born small for gestational age (SGA) has long-term implications with respect to glucose/insulin and lipid metabolism has not been answered yet. In this article, the available data are reviewed.