Introduction: Cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) improve the survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with peritoneal metastases. Patient selection is key since this treatment is associated with high morbidity. Patients with peritoneal recurrence within 1 year after previous adjuvant chemotherapy are thought to benefit less from HIPEC treatment; however, no published data are available to assist in clinical decision making. This study assessed whether peritoneal recurrence within 1 year after adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with survival after HIPEC treatment. Methods: Peritoneal recurrence within 1 year after adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as other potentially prognostic clinical and pathological variables, were tested in univariate and multivariate analysis for correlation with primary outcomes, i.e. overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Two prospectively collected databases from the VU University Medical Center Amsterdam and Catherina Hospital Eindhoven containing 345 CRC patients treated with the intent of HIPEC were utilized. Results: High Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) scores were associated with worse DFS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–1.08, p = 0.040] and OS (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07–1.15, p < 0.001) in multivariate analysis. Furthermore, patients with peritoneal recurrence within 1 year following adjuvant chemotherapy had worse DFS (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.26–3.61, p = 0.005) and OS (HR 2.76, 95% CI 1.45–5.27, p = 0.002) than patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy or patients with peritoneal recurrence after 1 year. Conclusion: Peritoneal recurrence within 1 year after previous adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as high PCI scores, are associated with poor survival after cytoreduction and HIPEC. These factors should be considered in order to avoid high-morbidity treatment in patients who might not benefit from such treatment.