In recent years, different computer-based cognitive training (CT) programs for people with dementia (PwD) have been developed following a psychosocial approach. Aim: This systematic review aims to identify the methodological designs applied in the development of computer-based training (CCT) programs for the rehabilitation of cognitive functioning in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using the databases PubMed and PsycINFO. The search period was between 2000–2019. The study selection and data extraction processes were carried out by two independent reviewers. The protocol was registered in International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) under registration number CRD42020159027. Results: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently used methodological design in the development of CCT programs for people with MCI or mild dementia was the user-centered design (UCD). This design involves an interactive system characterized by the inclusion of end users from the initial stages of its development, throughout the establishment of functional requirements, and in the evaluation of the program’s usability and user-experience (UX). Conclusion: UCD was the most used methodological design for the development of CCT programs although there was quite some variation in how this design was applied. Recommendations for future studies about the development of CCT programs for people with MCI and mild dementia are given. Central focus should be the inclusion and active participation of end users from the initial stages of development.