Mineralocorticoid Antagonism and Diabetic Kidney Disease

Yuliya Lytvyn, Lucas C. Godoy, Rosalie A. Scholtes, Daniël H. van Raalte, David Z. Cherney

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Purpose of Review: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), cardiovascular disease, and heart failure, in part through activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Although recent cardiovascular outcome trials have identified newer therapeutic agents such as sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-receptor agonists that reduce the risk of these complications, patients still exhibit residual cardiorenal morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, the identification of pharmacological agents that attenuate micro- and macrovascular complications related to T2D is a major priority. Our aim was to review evidence for the role of novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) that are being developed as adjunctive therapies to reduce the risk of DKD and cardiovascular disease in the setting of T2D. Recent Findings: Dual RAAS blockade with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor plus angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB) or ARB plus renin inhibition increases serious adverse events such as acute kidney injury and stroke. Due to the potential for these serious side effects, more recent interest has focused on newer, more selective non-steroidal MRAs such as finerenone as cardiorenal protective therapies. Finerenone reduces albuminuria in the setting of DKD in patients with T2D and has a lower risk of hyperkalemia compared to currently available MRAs. Summary: Novel MRAs such as finerenone have the potential to reduce the risk of DKD progression in patients with T2D. The impact of finerenone on hard, long-term cardiorenal endpoints is being examined in the FIGARO and FIDELIO trials in patients with DKD.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4
JournalCurrent Diabetes Reports
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Cite this

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title = "Mineralocorticoid Antagonism and Diabetic Kidney Disease",
abstract = "Purpose of Review: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), cardiovascular disease, and heart failure, in part through activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Although recent cardiovascular outcome trials have identified newer therapeutic agents such as sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-receptor agonists that reduce the risk of these complications, patients still exhibit residual cardiorenal morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, the identification of pharmacological agents that attenuate micro- and macrovascular complications related to T2D is a major priority. Our aim was to review evidence for the role of novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) that are being developed as adjunctive therapies to reduce the risk of DKD and cardiovascular disease in the setting of T2D. Recent Findings: Dual RAAS blockade with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor plus angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB) or ARB plus renin inhibition increases serious adverse events such as acute kidney injury and stroke. Due to the potential for these serious side effects, more recent interest has focused on newer, more selective non-steroidal MRAs such as finerenone as cardiorenal protective therapies. Finerenone reduces albuminuria in the setting of DKD in patients with T2D and has a lower risk of hyperkalemia compared to currently available MRAs. Summary: Novel MRAs such as finerenone have the potential to reduce the risk of DKD progression in patients with T2D. The impact of finerenone on hard, long-term cardiorenal endpoints is being examined in the FIGARO and FIDELIO trials in patients with DKD.",
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Mineralocorticoid Antagonism and Diabetic Kidney Disease. / Lytvyn, Yuliya; Godoy, Lucas C.; Scholtes, Rosalie A.; van Raalte, Daniël H.; Cherney, David Z.

In: Current Diabetes Reports, Vol. 19, No. 1, 4, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mineralocorticoid Antagonism and Diabetic Kidney Disease

AU - Lytvyn, Yuliya

AU - Godoy, Lucas C.

AU - Scholtes, Rosalie A.

AU - van Raalte, Daniël H.

AU - Cherney, David Z.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Purpose of Review: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), cardiovascular disease, and heart failure, in part through activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Although recent cardiovascular outcome trials have identified newer therapeutic agents such as sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-receptor agonists that reduce the risk of these complications, patients still exhibit residual cardiorenal morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, the identification of pharmacological agents that attenuate micro- and macrovascular complications related to T2D is a major priority. Our aim was to review evidence for the role of novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) that are being developed as adjunctive therapies to reduce the risk of DKD and cardiovascular disease in the setting of T2D. Recent Findings: Dual RAAS blockade with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor plus angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB) or ARB plus renin inhibition increases serious adverse events such as acute kidney injury and stroke. Due to the potential for these serious side effects, more recent interest has focused on newer, more selective non-steroidal MRAs such as finerenone as cardiorenal protective therapies. Finerenone reduces albuminuria in the setting of DKD in patients with T2D and has a lower risk of hyperkalemia compared to currently available MRAs. Summary: Novel MRAs such as finerenone have the potential to reduce the risk of DKD progression in patients with T2D. The impact of finerenone on hard, long-term cardiorenal endpoints is being examined in the FIGARO and FIDELIO trials in patients with DKD.

AB - Purpose of Review: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), cardiovascular disease, and heart failure, in part through activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Although recent cardiovascular outcome trials have identified newer therapeutic agents such as sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-receptor agonists that reduce the risk of these complications, patients still exhibit residual cardiorenal morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, the identification of pharmacological agents that attenuate micro- and macrovascular complications related to T2D is a major priority. Our aim was to review evidence for the role of novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) that are being developed as adjunctive therapies to reduce the risk of DKD and cardiovascular disease in the setting of T2D. Recent Findings: Dual RAAS blockade with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor plus angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB) or ARB plus renin inhibition increases serious adverse events such as acute kidney injury and stroke. Due to the potential for these serious side effects, more recent interest has focused on newer, more selective non-steroidal MRAs such as finerenone as cardiorenal protective therapies. Finerenone reduces albuminuria in the setting of DKD in patients with T2D and has a lower risk of hyperkalemia compared to currently available MRAs. Summary: Novel MRAs such as finerenone have the potential to reduce the risk of DKD progression in patients with T2D. The impact of finerenone on hard, long-term cardiorenal endpoints is being examined in the FIGARO and FIDELIO trials in patients with DKD.

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UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30673886

U2 - 10.1007/s11892-019-1123-8

DO - 10.1007/s11892-019-1123-8

M3 - Review article

VL - 19

JO - Current Diabetes Reports

JF - Current Diabetes Reports

SN - 1534-4827

IS - 1

M1 - 4

ER -