Defects in motile cilia and sperm flagella cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), characterized by chronic airway disease, infertility, and left-right body axis disturbance. Here we report maternally inherited and de novo mutations in PIH1D3 in four men affected with PCD. PIH1D3 is located on the X chromosome and is involved in the preassembly of both outer (ODA) and inner (IDA) dynein arms of cilia and sperm flagella. Loss-of-function mutations in PIH1D3 lead to absent ODAs and reduced to absent IDAs, causing ciliary and flagellar immotility. Further, PIH1D3 interacts and co-precipitates with cytoplasmic ODA/IDA assembly factors DNAAF2 and DNAAF4. This result has clinical and genetic counseling implications for genetically unsolved male case subjects with a classic PCD phenotype that lack additional phenotypes such as intellectual disability or retinitis pigmentosa.