Homozygous or compound heterozygous frameshift mutations in MYBPC3 encoding cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) cause neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which rapidly evolves into systolic heart failure and death within the first year of life. Here we show successful long-term Mybpc3 gene therapy in homozygous Mybpc3-targeted knock-in (KI) mice, which genetically mimic these human neonatal cardiomyopathies. A single systemic administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV9)-Mybpc3 in 1-day-old KI mice prevents the development of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction for the observation period of 34 weeks and increases Mybpc3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and cMyBP-C protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, Mybpc3 gene therapy unexpectedly also suppresses accumulation of mutant mRNAs. This study reports the first successful long-term gene therapy of HCM with correction of both haploinsufficiency and production of poison peptides. In the absence of alternative treatment options except heart transplantation, gene therapy could become a realistic treatment option for severe neonatal HCM.