OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate myocardial infarction induced by percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) in symptomatic patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy using contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced MRI delineates the extent of myocardial infarction in coronary artery disease, but its role in ethanol-induced infarction has not been established. METHODS: Cine and CE MRI were performed before and one month after PTSMA in 24 patients. Size and location of the induced infarction were related to left ventricular (LV) mass reduction, enzyme release, volume of ethanol administered, LV outflow tract gradient reduction, and coronary ablation site. RESULTS: One month after PTSMA, regional hyperenhancement was visualized in the basal interventricular septum in all patients. Mean infarction size was 20 ± 9 g, corresponding to 10 ± 5% and 31 ± 16% of total LV and septal mass, respectively. Total LV mass decreased from 219 ± 64 to 205 ± 64 g (p < 0.01), and septal mass from 76 ± 25 to 68 ± 22 g (p < 0.01). Total LV mass reduction exceeded septal mass reduction (p < 0.01). Infarction size correlated with peak creatine phosphokinase-MB (β = 0.67, p < 0.01), volume of ethanol administered (β = 0.47, p = 0.02), total LV and septal mass reduction (β = 0.50, p = 0.02; β = 0.73, p < 0.01), and gradient reduction (β = 0.63, p < 0.01). Seven patients with exclusively right-sided septal infarction had smaller infarction size and less gradient reduction than remaining patients with left-sided or transmural infarction (p < 0.01). In five of these, PTSMA was performed distal in the target artery. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced MRI allowed detailed evaluation of size and location of septal myocardial infarction induced by PTSMA. Infarction size correlated well with clinical indexes of infarct size.